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  • 대전콜걸▪예약금없는출장샵μ대전안마방 어플[대전북창동 후기]☺{대전쿤타이 마사지}☜대전출장만족보장♣대전모유수유 마사지セ대전타이 마사지 아로마✔대전건전한 마사지►대전역삼역 안마방

    As UN climate negotiations resume in Bonn, we look at why the crunch Paris climate conference from 30 November to 11 December is so important

    카지노사이트
    French foreign minister Laurent Fabius talks to delegates during the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Bonn, Germany. Photograph: Martin Meissner/AP

    대전콜걸┼예약금없는출장샵╬대전안마방 어플[대전정자 안마방]♥{대전안마방 스킬}▀대전의정부 안마방 추천»대전안마방 도촬↽대전양산 마사지☃대전턱근육 마사지┾대전춘천 태국 마사지

    The governments of more than 190 nations 서울안마방 누드 , aimed at reducing global greenhouse gas emissions and thus avoiding the threat of dangerous climate change.

    대전콜걸➵예약금없는출장샵⇔대전안마방 어플[대전세부 마사지]◐{대전안산 안마방}ζ대전출장마사지⇠대전익산 모텔 가격ツ대전석계 안마방╩대전청주 마사지╕대전뒷목 마사지

    Current commitments on greenhouse gas emissions run out in 2020, so at Paris governments are expected to produce an agreement on what happens for the decade after that at least, and potentially beyond.

    Emissions trajectory Photograph: Guardian

    대전콜걸➵예약✦대전안마방 어플[대전출장마사지 후기]⇚{대전안마방 왕가슴녀}┄대전전립선 마사지 후기♪대전전립선 마사지 부작용↷대전후쿠오카 마사지☪대전목동 안마방➛대전강남 타이마사지

    Scientists have warned that if greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, we will pass the threshold beyond which global warming becomes catastrophic and irreversible. That threshold is estimated as a temperature rise of 2C above pre-industrial levels, and on current emissions trajectories 서울출장안마 . That may not sound like much, but the temperature difference between today’s world and the last ice age was about 5C, so seemingly small changes in temperature can mean big differences for the Earth.

    대전콜걸.예약금없는출장샵☺대전안마방 어플[대전아산 출장 만남]➺{대전광주 여관}┨대전안마♝대전서정리 안마방☂대전정자역 안마방ν대전안마방 노콘ω대전구미 안마방

    They have: global negotiations on climate change have been carrying on for more than 20 years. The history of climate change goes back much further: in the 19th century, physicists theorised about the role of greenhouse gases, chiefly carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere, and several suggested that the warming effect would increase alongside the levels of these gases in the atmosphere. But this was all theoretical.

    Only in the past few decades have scientists begun the measurements necessary to establish a relationship between current carbon levels and temperatures, and the science conducted since then 하남이천 안마방 : that rising greenhouse gas emissions, arising from our use of fossil fuels and our industries, lead to higher temperatures.

    대전콜걸➚24시출장샵♨대전안마방 어플[대전상록수 안마방]➻{대전창동 마사지}↕대전브베 안마방☛대전대전 모텔 다방►대전사당 안마방↷대전일본놈 길거리 한국여자 꼬셔사 마사지◦대전다낭 마사지 vip

    No. Global temperatures have been on a clear upward path. There was a spike in 1998, after which temperatures were lower – 광주출장샵 – that led some climate sceptics to claim that the world was cooling.

    대전콜걸대전마사지 품번 추천

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  • But it is important to note that temperatures have not fallen, or stalled – they have continued to rise. Given the variations that characterise our weather systems, a period in which the rate of warming slowed is not unexpected.

    For the past two years, the rate of warming seems to have accelerated again , but little can be construed from that.

    대전콜걸➚24시출장샵フ대전안마방 어플[대전동해 안마방]☈{대전안마방 강남}♨대전안마방 유출”대전장요근 마사지┘대전어방동 마사지┧대전안마방 초보☣대전안마방 아침

    In 1992, governments met in Rio de Janeiro and 부산사각턱 마사지 . That agreement, still in force, bound governments to take action to avoid dangerous climate change, but did not specify what actions. Over the following five years, governments wrangled over what each should do, and what should be the role of developed countries versus poorer nations.

    Those years of argument produced, in 1997, 카지노사이트.xyz . That pact required worldwide cuts in emissions of about 5%, compared with 1990 levels, by 2012, and each developed country was allotted a target on emissions reductions. But developing countries, including China, South Korea, Mexico and other rapidly emerging economies, were given no targets and allowed to increase their emissions at will.

    온라인카지노
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    People sign the Earth pledge made at the the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in June 1992. Photograph: UN Photo

    Al Gore, then US vice-president, signed up to the protocol, but it was quickly apparent that it would never be ratified by the US Congress. Legally, the protocol could not come into force until countries representing 55% of global emissions had ratified it. With the US – then the world’s biggest emitter – on the outside, that was not going to happen.

    So for most of the following decade, the Kyoto protocol remained in abeyance and global climate change negotiations ground to a near-halt. But in late 2004, 서울출장샵 – unexpectedly, and as part of a move to have its application for World Trade Organisation membership accepted by the European Union. That made up the weight needed, and the protocol finally came into force.

    대전콜걸◑예약금없는출장샵➺대전안마방 어플[대전야 동 마사지]¤{대전안마방 왕가슴녀}╤대전안마방 에이즈⇂대전아마 시안╠ 대전강남 안마방 서비스⇛대전누루 마사지☺대전주안 마사지

    Not quite. The US, under George W Bush, remained firmly outside Kyoto, so although the UN negotiations carried on year after year, the US negotiators were often in different rooms from the rest of the world. It was clear a new approach was needed that could bring the US in, and encourage the major developing economies – especially China, now the world’s biggest emitter – to take on limits to their emissions.

    What followed was, 동인천안마방 마사지 an action plan that set the world on the course to a new agreement that would take over from Kyoto.

    대전콜걸☢예약☳대전안마방 어플[대전부산역 마사지]☐{대전인천 서구 마사지}⇟대전평택역 안마방▣대전평택 안마방♮대전낙성대 안마방☼대전출장서비스⇩대전인도 뉴델리 마사지

    It did take a long time. But getting agreement from 196 countries was never going to be easy. The next act of this long-running drama fully demonstrated that: the 포항출장안마 .

    고창아쿠아 마사지 젤
    밀양안마방 애무 카지노사이트 고양안마방 nf 뜻
    US president Barack Obama along with European leaders including German chancellor Angela Merkel, centre, attend negotiations on the final night of the Copenhagen UN Climate Change summit in Denmark on 18 December 2009. Photograph: Pool/Getty Images

    대전콜걸✥24시출장샵ヒ대전안마방 어플[대전50대 안마방]♦{대전마사지 방법}┼대전안마방 스탭☈대전새로운 안마방 아가씨↹대전남편 마사지➻대전마사지 남친➚대전안마방 질내사정

    Everything but the treaty. All of the world’s developed countries and the biggest developing countries agreed – for the first time – to limits on their greenhouse gas emissions. This was a landmark, as it meant the world’s biggest emitters were united towards a single goal.

    The emissions reductions agreed on were still not enough to meet scientific advice, but they were a big advance on reducing emissions compared with “business as usual”.

    But what didn’t happen turned out to be the point that NGOs and many in the press seized on. 군산출장안마 .

    대전콜걸⇂출장부르는법⇦대전안마방 어플[대전아프리카 마사지]‿{대전중국 마사지 종류}☐대전서양 마사지 fc2╌대전안마방 아가씨♩대전안마방 오픈시간◊대전중국 대딸░대전중국전통마사지 팁

    It depends on your viewpoint. The Kyoto protocol was a beautifully written, watertight, fully legally binding international treaty, a sub-treaty of the similarly binding UNFCCC. But it never met its objectives, because it wasn’t ratified by the US, and not by Russia until it was too late. And 카지노사이트 .

    The Copenhagen agreement, on the other hand, was not fully adopted by the UN in 2009 because of last-minute chaos at the conference, though it was ratified the following year 진주금촌 안마방 . For this reason, the Copenhagen agreement was derided as a failure by green groups.

    대전콜걸⇡예약금없는출장샵✿대전안마방 어플[대전마사지 porn]☞{대전대구 아로마 마사지}⇂대전팔 마사지╂대전이태원 마사지█대전춘천 마사지☝대전마사지 배우기❂대전홍콩 안마방

    But the targets agreed at Copenhagen, in the form of a document signed by world leaders, still stand.

    Representatives of governments from more than 190 nations will try to reach an agreement on carbon emissions at the COP 21 Paris climate talks in December. Photograph: COP21

    대전콜걸✄24시출장샵コ대전안마방 어플[대전전민동 마사지]⇠{대전nhdta 마사지}▌대전필리핀 마사지♗대전눈 마사지 기계ケ대전상추 안마방♡대전동대구역 모텔┤대전가슴 마사지

    We know already what the biggest emitters have committed to. The 보령영등포 안마방 , compared with 1990 levels, by 2030. The 구미출장안마 , compared with 2005 levels, by 2025. 군산출장샵 .

    Nations responsible for more than 90% of global emissions have now come up with their targets – 의정부동대문구 안마방 . These include all of the major developed and developing countries, though their contributions vary: in the case of developed countries, actual cuts in emissions, but for developing countries a range of targets including limits on emissions compared to “business as usual”, and pledges to increase low-carbon energy or preserve forests.

    Analysis of the INDCS, endorsed by the UN, has suggested that 포항출장샵 . That is not quite enough to meet the scientific advice. However, that is not the end of the story. One of the key components of any Paris agreement would be to institute a system of review of the emissions targets every five years, with a view to ratcheting them upwards.

    Another, and complementary, approach is to make more effort to bring down emissions outside the UN process, for instance by engaging “non-state actors” such as cities, local governments and businesses to do more.

    대전콜걸♧예약1대전안마방 어플[대전안마방 번호]キ{대전안산 줄리엣 마사지}♬대전출장서비스◐대전논현동 안마방↘대전지저분한 섹스 나고야 여성전용 마사지ム대전서울샵↑대전남성전용

    Not at all – the other key question, apart from emissions reductions, is finance. Poorer countries want the rich world to provide them with financial help that will enable them to invest in clean technology to cut their greenhouse gas emissions, and to adapt their infrastructure to the likely damage from climate change.

    This is a hugely contentious issue. At Copenhagen, where the finance part of the deal was only sorted out at the very last minute, 바카라사이트.xyz , and they said that by 2020, financial flows of at least $100bn a year would be provided.

    As a cornerstone of any Paris agreement, poor countries want assurances that this pledge will be met. That has now been given, in several forms: 전주출장샵 showing that two thirds of the finance required is already being supplied; and 대구출장안마 showed that the remainder can be made up by increased finance from the World Bank and other development banks, and from the private sector. The World Bank and several governments have already committed to upping their financial assistance, meaning that a clear path towards the 2020 target can now be discerned.

    There is more, however. Poor nations also want a similar provision in place beyond 2020, but there is strong disagreement over how this should be done. Some want all the money to come from rich country governments, but those governments are adamant that they will not provide such funding solely from the public purse. They want international development banks, such as the World Bank, to play a role, and they want most of the funding to come from the private sector.

    An agreement on this is still possible, but it will be one of the main obstacles to a Paris deal.

    대전콜걸♮출장부르는법↕대전안마방 어플[대전포항 타이 마사지]▤{대전마사지 노모}⇚대전봉천 안마방✌대전영화 히든 토렌트⇩대전강릉 여관✍대전안마방 몰카 유출~ 대화 대박임◆대전속초 마사지

    Yes. The heads of state or government of more than 130 countries have already said they will come. These include Barack Obama of the US, Xi Jinping of China, Narendra Modi of India, Angela Merkel of Germany and David Cameron of the UK. have as yet pulled out as a result of the terrorist attacks on Paris, and security has been stepped up as an assurance. Unlike the Copenhagen talks, however, at which world leaders turned up at the last minute of the two weeks of talks to find their negotiating teams in chaos and without a clear agreement for them to sign, this time the leaders will arrive at the beginning of the conference, give their negotiating teams clear instructions, and expect a fully formed agreement at the end of it.

    On behalf of the French government, the conference will be led by foreign minister Laurent Fabius, and environment minister Segolene Royal, but the French president Francois Hollande will also play a key role. They are all confident that a deal can be made.

    제주도주안 여관
    수원출장안마 광명화정 안마방 대구출장안마
    French president Francois Hollande. Photograph: Philippe Wojazer /Pool/EPA

    대전콜걸╳예약✓대전안마방 어플[대전안마방 유출]⇙{대전음경 마사지}╞대전다낭 붐붐 마사지タ대전세종시 마사지ο대전일본에서 한국녀섭외 마사지➵대전안마방 가는법♜대전양배추 안마방

    The key question now is over security. With the French capital under recent attack, and reports of fresh assaults averted by the armed forces, the atmosphere in Paris will be unlike any city that has hosted major international talks before. Security will be paramount - the French police and army will be on the streets, and the venue will be patrolled by uniformed UN guards - but the atrocities of 13 November will hang heavily on all delegates. This may mean that when world leaders attend private meetings, terrorism is discussed before climate change. But it may also mean that delegates are under more pressure than ever to come up with a deal, given the tragic circumstances surrounding them.대전콜걸대전남친 안마방☈대전사상 출장♮{대전마사지 알바}대전장 마사지☝대전타이 마사지 가격♨대전오피 마사지⇛대전까치산 마사지┽광주출장샵24시출장샵대전마사지 사정⊙대전노원 마사지↱﹝대전강동 마사지﹞대전응암 마사지╀대전탑 클래스☃대전타이페이 마사지◥대전대전복합터미널 마사지┹대전콜걸무주이반 마사지대전대구 모텔 아가씨♬대전안마방 동영상⇟〔대전안마방 감염〕대전출장☇대전일본 안마방 야동✖대전햄스터 마사지╡대전체코 마사지⇍대전안마방 나이대υ대전마사지 강간┯‹대전마사지 야.동›대전허리 마사지➷대전눈 마사지↼대전금호동 안마방♗대전서양 마사지♡대전안마방 휴게☄대전구월동 마사지▤﹛대전카톡 출장 만남﹜대전안마방 나이대☃대전예약금 없는 출장❖대전안마방 사귄ト대전천안 조건 만남┒대전곤지암 마사지☷대전야동 마사지♭《대전신포동 마사지》대전종아리 마사지 기계╎대전찌라시 썰►대전출장샵 예약금↕대전나고야 여성전용 마사지♩예약성주안양1번가 마사지예약금없는출장샵대전부산 여관 가격▶대전마닐라 마사지ヌ<대전전립선 마사지>대전출장업소╗대전부산대 안마방☛대전교대 마사지┮대전안마방 영상↲대전콜걸대전콜걸대전출장샵대전영화 히든 토렌트대전명동 마사지대전분당 안마방대전손목 마사지대전콜걸대전오키나와 마사지↮대전중앙동 안마방⊙{대전부산 수영 안마방}대전송우리 안마방╤대전서귀포 마사지☄대전조건 카톡►대전릉콜걸샵↔원주얼굴 마사지 기계

    If nations can meet and agree equitable goals on the climate, in these circumstances, it will be a triumph for international cooperation, for our wellbeing and security, and for faith in the future, in the face of forces who wish to destroy all three.

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