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As UN climate negotiations resume in Bonn, we look at why the crunch Paris climate conference from 30 November to 11 December is so important

대구출장안마
French foreign minister Laurent Fabius talks to delegates during the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Bonn, Germany. Photograph: Martin Meissner/AP

논산출장맛사지⇇출장부르는법[논산마사지 핸플﹛논산용현동 마사지﹜♫【논산동대문 마사지】╏논산일본 성인 마사지☭논산한물간 연예인 안마방➹논산어스파◘논산동인천 마사지☊논산압구정 마사지

The governments of more than 190 nations 공주서울대입구 안마방 , aimed at reducing global greenhouse gas emissions and thus avoiding the threat of dangerous climate change.

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Current commitments on greenhouse gas emissions run out in 2020, so at Paris governments are expected to produce an agreement on what happens for the decade after that at least, and potentially beyond.

Emissions trajectory Photograph: Guardian

논산출장맛사지♮출장부르는법モ논산마사지 핸플﹛논산24시 마사지﹜↺【논산산본 마사지 후기】▶논산경주 마사지╯논산씨엠립 마사지ケ논산포항 안마방➴논산베이징 마사지⇂논산영천 안마방

Scientists have warned that if greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, we will pass the threshold beyond which global warming becomes catastrophic and irreversible. That threshold is estimated as a temperature rise of 2C above pre-industrial levels, and on current emissions trajectories 원주출장샵 . That may not sound like much, but the temperature difference between today’s world and the last ice age was about 5C, so seemingly small changes in temperature can mean big differences for the Earth.

논산출장맛사지☂출장부르는법♡논산마사지 핸플﹛논산수유 안마방﹜✐【논산마산 안마방】▽논산하단 마사지☽논산콜걸업소☑논산고시촌 안마방❖논산발안 모텔▲논산다낭 호텔 마사지

They have: global negotiations on climate change have been carrying on for more than 20 years. The history of climate change goes back much further: in the 19th century, physicists theorised about the role of greenhouse gases, chiefly carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere, and several suggested that the warming effect would increase alongside the levels of these gases in the atmosphere. But this was all theoretical.

Only in the past few decades have scientists begun the measurements necessary to establish a relationship between current carbon levels and temperatures, and the science conducted since then 태백동대구역 마사지 : that rising greenhouse gas emissions, arising from our use of fossil fuels and our industries, lead to higher temperatures.

논산출장맛사지♯예약ε논산마사지 핸플﹛논산오야넷 마사지﹜✪【논산아주동 마사지】◈논산마사지 핸플⇚논산족저근막염 마사지┯논산마사지 추천▶논산안마방 tsη논산서혜부 마사지

No. Global temperatures have been on a clear upward path. There was a spike in 1998, after which temperatures were lower – 평택출장샵 – that led some climate sceptics to claim that the world was cooling.

논산출장맛사지논산안마방 키스 가능

  • 합천어깨 마사지
  • 논산최음제 마사지
  • 논산출장맛사지
  • But it is important to note that temperatures have not fallen, or stalled – they have continued to rise. Given the variations that characterise our weather systems, a period in which the rate of warming slowed is not unexpected.

    For the past two years, the rate of warming seems to have accelerated again , but little can be construed from that.

    논산출장맛사지セ예약금없는출장샵↕논산마사지 핸플﹛논산세븐 안마방﹜•【논산video.fc2.com 마사지】ム논산아비게일 마사지↖논산남부터미널 안마방モ논산옆광대 마사지✓논산사가정 안마방➢논산일산 타이 마사지

    In 1992, governments met in Rio de Janeiro and 전주여수 안마방 . That agreement, still in force, bound governments to take action to avoid dangerous climate change, but did not specify what actions. Over the following five years, governments wrangled over what each should do, and what should be the role of developed countries versus poorer nations.

    Those years of argument produced, in 1997, 원주출장샵 . That pact required worldwide cuts in emissions of about 5%, compared with 1990 levels, by 2012, and each developed country was allotted a target on emissions reductions. But developing countries, including China, South Korea, Mexico and other rapidly emerging economies, were given no targets and allowed to increase their emissions at will.

    카지노사이트
    계룡레이크호텔 마사지 bein.xyz 경상북도안마방 쓰리섬
    People sign the Earth pledge made at the the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in June 1992. Photograph: UN Photo

    Al Gore, then US vice-president, signed up to the protocol, but it was quickly apparent that it would never be ratified by the US Congress. Legally, the protocol could not come into force until countries representing 55% of global emissions had ratified it. With the US – then the world’s biggest emitter – on the outside, that was not going to happen.

    So for most of the following decade, the Kyoto protocol remained in abeyance and global climate change negotiations ground to a near-halt. But in late 2004, 온라인카지노 – unexpectedly, and as part of a move to have its application for World Trade Organisation membership accepted by the European Union. That made up the weight needed, and the protocol finally came into force.

    논산출장맛사지▌24시출장샵▧논산마사지 핸플﹛논산안마방 알바﹜δ【논산성인 안마방】╙논산오십견 마사지◘논산콜 걸↕논산마사지 토렌⇅논산동대문 안마방♂논산창동역 마사지

    Not quite. The US, under George W Bush, remained firmly outside Kyoto, so although the UN negotiations carried on year after year, the US negotiators were often in different rooms from the rest of the world. It was clear a new approach was needed that could bring the US in, and encourage the major developing economies – especially China, now the world’s biggest emitter – to take on limits to their emissions.

    What followed was, 천안림프 마사지 an action plan that set the world on the course to a new agreement that would take over from Kyoto.

    논산출장맛사지╖예약⇩논산마사지 핸플﹛논산라오스 마사지 2차﹜♥【논산오키나와 마사지】◎논산서울 여인숙 가격レ논산스타 안마방♪논산감성 마사지→논산손목터널증후군 마사지╩논산평택 안마방

    It did take a long time. But getting agreement from 196 countries was never going to be easy. The next act of this long-running drama fully demonstrated that: the 전주출장안마 .

    공주천안역 근처 모텔
    무안출장서비스 카지노사이트 익산턱근육 마사지
    US president Barack Obama along with European leaders including German chancellor Angela Merkel, centre, attend negotiations on the final night of the Copenhagen UN Climate Change summit in Denmark on 18 December 2009. Photograph: Pool/Getty Images

    논산출장맛사지△예약금없는출장샵⊙논산마사지 핸플﹛논산영천 마사지﹜►【논산이반 마사지】メ논산금호동 안마방⇪논산여관 다방☈논산사당 출장┵논산운서역 안마방◁논산출장마사wl

    Everything but the treaty. All of the world’s developed countries and the biggest developing countries agreed – for the first time – to limits on their greenhouse gas emissions. This was a landmark, as it meant the world’s biggest emitters were united towards a single goal.

    The emissions reductions agreed on were still not enough to meet scientific advice, but they were a big advance on reducing emissions compared with “business as usual”.

    But what didn’t happen turned out to be the point that NGOs and many in the press seized on. 온라인카지노 .

    논산출장맛사지◘예약υ논산마사지 핸플﹛논산태국 여행 마사지﹜➸【논산양재 안마방】➚논산상대보호구역♠논산생리통 완화 마사지キ논산모텔 tumblr⇪논산최음제 마사지┗논산베트남 마사지 후기

    It depends on your viewpoint. The Kyoto protocol was a beautifully written, watertight, fully legally binding international treaty, a sub-treaty of the similarly binding UNFCCC. But it never met its objectives, because it wasn’t ratified by the US, and not by Russia until it was too late. And 수원출장안마 .

    The Copenhagen agreement, on the other hand, was not fully adopted by the UN in 2009 because of last-minute chaos at the conference, though it was ratified the following year 해남마사지 나무위키 . For this reason, the Copenhagen agreement was derided as a failure by green groups.

    논산출장맛사지ღ출장부르는법☝논산마사지 핸플﹛논산울산 동구 마사지﹜☭【논산안마방 ㅇㄷ】█논산tumblr 마사지┪논산이반 마사지☎논산영통 마사지 ㅁㅁㄹ➠논산후불제 출장샵✡논산안마방 tumblr

    But the targets agreed at Copenhagen, in the form of a document signed by world leaders, still stand.

    Representatives of governments from more than 190 nations will try to reach an agreement on carbon emissions at the COP 21 Paris climate talks in December. Photograph: COP21

    논산출장맛사지ヌ출장부르는법⇀논산마사지 핸플﹛논산전립선 마사지 후기﹜➨【논산노량진 안마방】❄논산가슴 커지는 마사지▫논산신림 모텔ラ논산부부 마사지⇤논산부산 서면 출장♀논산구리 마사지

    We know already what the biggest emitters have committed to. The 임실김포 안마방 , compared with 1990 levels, by 2030. The 카지노사이트 , compared with 2005 levels, by 2025. loveyangju.xyz .

    Nations responsible for more than 90% of global emissions have now come up with their targets – 속초하동 안마방 . These include all of the major developed and developing countries, though their contributions vary: in the case of developed countries, actual cuts in emissions, but for developing countries a range of targets including limits on emissions compared to “business as usual”, and pledges to increase low-carbon energy or preserve forests.

    Analysis of the INDCS, endorsed by the UN, has suggested that econo-edu.xyz . That is not quite enough to meet the scientific advice. However, that is not the end of the story. One of the key components of any Paris agreement would be to institute a system of review of the emissions targets every five years, with a view to ratcheting them upwards.

    Another, and complementary, approach is to make more effort to bring down emissions outside the UN process, for instance by engaging “non-state actors” such as cities, local governments and businesses to do more.

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    Not at all – the other key question, apart from emissions reductions, is finance. Poorer countries want the rich world to provide them with financial help that will enable them to invest in clean technology to cut their greenhouse gas emissions, and to adapt their infrastructure to the likely damage from climate change.

    This is a hugely contentious issue. At Copenhagen, where the finance part of the deal was only sorted out at the very last minute, xlsx.xyz , and they said that by 2020, financial flows of at least $100bn a year would be provided.

    As a cornerstone of any Paris agreement, poor countries want assurances that this pledge will be met. That has now been given, in several forms: 목포출장샵 showing that two thirds of the finance required is already being supplied; and 대구출장샵 showed that the remainder can be made up by increased finance from the World Bank and other development banks, and from the private sector. The World Bank and several governments have already committed to upping their financial assistance, meaning that a clear path towards the 2020 target can now be discerned.

    There is more, however. Poor nations also want a similar provision in place beyond 2020, but there is strong disagreement over how this should be done. Some want all the money to come from rich country governments, but those governments are adamant that they will not provide such funding solely from the public purse. They want international development banks, such as the World Bank, to play a role, and they want most of the funding to come from the private sector.

    An agreement on this is still possible, but it will be one of the main obstacles to a Paris deal.

    논산출장맛사지✖예약금없는출장샵0논산마사지 핸플﹛논산1인 마사지﹜✘【논산속초 안마방】➚논산보령 안마방☎논산김해 출장 마사지►논산익산 마사지⇁논산일베 모텔┛논산퇴폐

    Yes. The heads of state or government of more than 130 countries have already said they will come. These include Barack Obama of the US, Xi Jinping of China, Narendra Modi of India, Angela Merkel of Germany and David Cameron of the UK. have as yet pulled out as a result of the terrorist attacks on Paris, and security has been stepped up as an assurance. Unlike the Copenhagen talks, however, at which world leaders turned up at the last minute of the two weeks of talks to find their negotiating teams in chaos and without a clear agreement for them to sign, this time the leaders will arrive at the beginning of the conference, give their negotiating teams clear instructions, and expect a fully formed agreement at the end of it.

    On behalf of the French government, the conference will be led by foreign minister Laurent Fabius, and environment minister Segolene Royal, but the French president Francois Hollande will also play a key role. They are all confident that a deal can be made.

    대구마사지 토렌
    카지노사이트 순창일산 타이 마사지 카지노사이트
    French president Francois Hollande. Photograph: Philippe Wojazer /Pool/EPA

    논산출장맛사지┆예약◇논산마사지 핸플﹛논산쿤타이 마사지﹜的【논산마사지 ㅁㅁㄹ】╝논산창원 출장 마사지☚ 논산멜라니↾논산안마방 장부♭논산안마방 요도염⇖논산눈 마사지

    The key question now is over security. With the French capital under recent attack, and reports of fresh assaults averted by the armed forces, the atmosphere in Paris will be unlike any city that has hosted major international talks before. Security will be paramount - the French police and army will be on the streets, and the venue will be patrolled by uniformed UN guards - but the atrocities of 13 November will hang heavily on all delegates. This may mean that when world leaders attend private meetings, terrorism is discussed before climate change. But it may also mean that delegates are under more pressure than ever to come up with a deal, given the tragic circumstances surrounding them.논산출장맛사지논산일산 모텔 가격☆논산블라디보스톡 마사지×【논산수원 안마방】논산부산 안마방 추천╪논산연산동 마사지☣논산창동 마사지↹논산출장 마사지 후기♤okbari.xyz예약금없는출장샵논산포항 모텔 추천═논산주안 모텔 추천⇩(논산신촌 안마방)논산러시아 마사지✡논산화곡동 안마방ヤ논산일본 가슴 마사지ⓞ논산일산 안마방 가격⇂논산출장맛사지진해칠곡 마사지논산토렌트 안마방↹논산대전 출장✒【논산종아리 마사지 기계】논산노포 안마방φ논산대전 모텔 추천◥논산마사지 간판구분┲논산다이소 마사지φ논산문산 안마방☵논산등 마사지 방법⇪〈논산봉담 마사지〉논산검단사거리 안마방┞논산초대남 마사지┡논산송도 마사지╳논산마사지 3만원╧논산태릉입구역 안마방★논산부평 에이스 안마방☃《논산음부 마사지》논산안마방 단속 확률╂논산싸인볼 마사지╗논산송파 안마방☣논산건대 마사지♪ 논산갑상선 마사지▐논산모텔 티켓➺‹논산가산디지털단지역 안마방›논산전립선 마사지 부작용➡논산마사지 질싸シ논산거제도 모텔 추천⇡논산거제 안마방☎예약평택가슴 마사지예약금없는출장샵논산중국모델 슈가☺논산안마방 찾기┳{논산부산 모텔 추천}논산출장안마 후기╂논산순천 마사지↧논산부천역 안마방┲논산출장외국인┓논산출장맛사지논산출장맛사지포항출장안마논산50대 안마방논산태국 현지 마사지논산거제도 모텔 추천논산여성전용 마사지논산출장맛사지논산소주잔 마사지☰논산건전한 마사지♐[논산다방 콜]논산제주도 안마방 추천┾논산안마방 어디까지キ논산안마방 영어コ논산남성전용♥양양안마방 수원

    If nations can meet and agree equitable goals on the climate, in these circumstances, it will be a triumph for international cooperation, for our wellbeing and security, and for faith in the future, in the face of forces who wish to destroy all three.

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