24시출장샵
  • 나주덕천동 마사지
  • 대구출장샵
  • 광주출장샵
  • 이천jav 마사지
  • 나주출장안마◦24시출장샵┄나주출장최고시〖나주홍콩 마사지〗コ﹝나주다낭 호텔 마사지﹞▄나주출장 모텔↰나주일본 안마방┎나주콜걸출장안마☠나주부산 연산동 안마방♡나주해변 마사지

    As UN climate negotiations resume in Bonn, we look at why the crunch Paris climate conference from 30 November to 11 December is so important

    창원출장샵
    French foreign minister Laurent Fabius talks to delegates during the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Bonn, Germany. Photograph: Martin Meissner/AP

    나주출장안마❁예약┑나주출장최고시〖나주출장마사wl〗➳﹝나주삼산동 마사지﹞┵나주안마방 영업시간┅나주대전 모텔 다방↾나주구로 마사지╬나주타이 마사지┤나주안마방 ts

    The governments of more than 190 nations 김해엘림 마사지 , aimed at reducing global greenhouse gas emissions and thus avoiding the threat of dangerous climate change.

    나주출장안마•예약♡나주출장최고시〖나주구의역 마사지〗╚﹝나주운서역 안마방﹞♔나주전기 마사지↕나주손 마사지★나주삼성역 마사지═나주림프절 마사지♥나주마사지방

    Current commitments on greenhouse gas emissions run out in 2020, so at Paris governments are expected to produce an agreement on what happens for the decade after that at least, and potentially beyond.

    Emissions trajectory Photograph: Guardian

    나주출장안마☜예약ο나주출장최고시〖나주콜걸〗ζ﹝나주강원도 안마방﹞♦나주전주 마사지 추천»나주안마방 오피┚나주신림동 마사지✿나주야동 안마방〓나주19 마사지

    Scientists have warned that if greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, we will pass the threshold beyond which global warming becomes catastrophic and irreversible. That threshold is estimated as a temperature rise of 2C above pre-industrial levels, and on current emissions trajectories 전주출장안마 . That may not sound like much, but the temperature difference between today’s world and the last ice age was about 5C, so seemingly small changes in temperature can mean big differences for the Earth.

    나주출장안마►24시출장샵κ나주출장최고시〖나주베트남 마사지〗▥﹝나주응암 마사지﹞▀나주강릉 조건녀┺나주안마방 보빨ス나주일본 보빨√나주해운대 아가씨┘나주용원 안마방

    They have: global negotiations on climate change have been carrying on for more than 20 years. The history of climate change goes back much further: in the 19th century, physicists theorised about the role of greenhouse gases, chiefly carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere, and several suggested that the warming effect would increase alongside the levels of these gases in the atmosphere. But this was all theoretical.

    Only in the past few decades have scientists begun the measurements necessary to establish a relationship between current carbon levels and temperatures, and the science conducted since then 정읍av 에이미 : that rising greenhouse gas emissions, arising from our use of fossil fuels and our industries, lead to higher temperatures.

    나주출장안마┏예약금없는출장샵☈나주출장최고시〖나주장요근 마사지〗┻﹝나주범계역 안마방﹞♮나주경산 사우나 마사지☣나주마사지 ㅁㅁㄹ╝나주서귀포 마사지┌나주서울 안마방 위치↺나주출장샵강추

    No. Global temperatures have been on a clear upward path. There was a spike in 1998, after which temperatures were lower – 카지노사이트 – that led some climate sceptics to claim that the world was cooling.

    나주출장안마나주스웨디시 마사지 단점

  • 서울 감성마사지란
  • 나주코 마사지 전후
  • 나주출장안마
  • But it is important to note that temperatures have not fallen, or stalled – they have continued to rise. Given the variations that characterise our weather systems, a period in which the rate of warming slowed is not unexpected.

    For the past two years, the rate of warming seems to have accelerated again , but little can be construed from that.

    나주출장안마┷예약금없는출장샵┷나주출장최고시〖나주국 안마방 초이스〗ハ﹝나주수지 안마방﹞╞나주안마방 서비스╝나주삼산동 출장☟나주폰섹 녹음◑나주안마방 대물⇛나주24시 마사지

    In 1992, governments met in Rio de Janeiro and 화성gigi rivera 마사지 . That agreement, still in force, bound governments to take action to avoid dangerous climate change, but did not specify what actions. Over the following five years, governments wrangled over what each should do, and what should be the role of developed countries versus poorer nations.

    Those years of argument produced, in 1997, 천안출장샵 . That pact required worldwide cuts in emissions of about 5%, compared with 1990 levels, by 2012, and each developed country was allotted a target on emissions reductions. But developing countries, including China, South Korea, Mexico and other rapidly emerging economies, were given no targets and allowed to increase their emissions at will.

    전주출장샵
    포천단양 안마방 카지노사이트 화순서산시 안마방
    People sign the Earth pledge made at the the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in June 1992. Photograph: UN Photo

    Al Gore, then US vice-president, signed up to the protocol, but it was quickly apparent that it would never be ratified by the US Congress. Legally, the protocol could not come into force until countries representing 55% of global emissions had ratified it. With the US – then the world’s biggest emitter – on the outside, that was not going to happen.

    So for most of the following decade, the Kyoto protocol remained in abeyance and global climate change negotiations ground to a near-halt. But in late 2004, jub.xyz – unexpectedly, and as part of a move to have its application for World Trade Organisation membership accepted by the European Union. That made up the weight needed, and the protocol finally came into force.

    나주출장안마★예약금없는출장샵☞나주출장최고시〖나주논현 안마방〗♐﹝나주아침 안마방﹞☜나주평택역 마사지◙나주안양역 안마방⊙나주김연아 안마방✚나주안마방 분수╛나주주안 모텔 추천

    Not quite. The US, under George W Bush, remained firmly outside Kyoto, so although the UN negotiations carried on year after year, the US negotiators were often in different rooms from the rest of the world. It was clear a new approach was needed that could bring the US in, and encourage the major developing economies – especially China, now the world’s biggest emitter – to take on limits to their emissions.

    What followed was, 인제서울샵 an action plan that set the world on the course to a new agreement that would take over from Kyoto.

    나주출장안마➻예약↦나주출장최고시〖나주계룡 안마방〗☜﹝나주나고야 여성전용 마사지﹞◦나주건전한 마사지↤나주멜라니☠나주순천 중국 마사지→나주금정 안마방╓나주운정 안마방

    It did take a long time. But getting agreement from 196 countries was never going to be easy. The next act of this long-running drama fully demonstrated that: the 구미출장안마 .

    고양군포 마사지
    원주안마방 영어로 대전출장샵 용인안마방 아이돌
    US president Barack Obama along with European leaders including German chancellor Angela Merkel, centre, attend negotiations on the final night of the Copenhagen UN Climate Change summit in Denmark on 18 December 2009. Photograph: Pool/Getty Images

    나주출장안마▷출장부르는법✉나주출장최고시〖나주남포동 안마방〗☣﹝나주남부터미널 안마방﹞♮나주일본 마사지 품번↩나주부산 출장안마¤나주아로마 마사지 팬티☂나주안마방 혼자♠나주창동역 마사지

    Everything but the treaty. All of the world’s developed countries and the biggest developing countries agreed – for the first time – to limits on their greenhouse gas emissions. This was a landmark, as it meant the world’s biggest emitters were united towards a single goal.

    The emissions reductions agreed on were still not enough to meet scientific advice, but they were a big advance on reducing emissions compared with “business as usual”.

    But what didn’t happen turned out to be the point that NGOs and many in the press seized on. 카지노사이트 .

    나주출장안마☎예약☏나주출장최고시〖나주콧대 마사지 효과〗§﹝나주출장오피﹞§나주국노 torrent☜나주구미 모텔♥나주마사지 노출┲나주피파 안마방↡나주안마방 하드

    It depends on your viewpoint. The Kyoto protocol was a beautifully written, watertight, fully legally binding international treaty, a sub-treaty of the similarly binding UNFCCC. But it never met its objectives, because it wasn’t ratified by the US, and not by Russia until it was too late. And 진주출장샵 .

    The Copenhagen agreement, on the other hand, was not fully adopted by the UN in 2009 because of last-minute chaos at the conference, though it was ratified the following year 울진동암역 마사지 . For this reason, the Copenhagen agreement was derided as a failure by green groups.

    나주출장안마✲예약❈나주출장최고시〖나주평택역 마사지〗↺﹝나주신사역 마사지﹞♪ 나주잇몸 마사지♀나주안마방 영어로┌나주마사지 남친♦나주구의 마사지┛나주유방 마사지

    But the targets agreed at Copenhagen, in the form of a document signed by world leaders, still stand.

    Representatives of governments from more than 190 nations will try to reach an agreement on carbon emissions at the COP 21 Paris climate talks in December. Photograph: COP21

    나주출장안마✓출장부르는법♀나주출장최고시〖나주전립선 마사지 비용〗ψ﹝나주의정부 모텔 가격﹞↦나주여성전용 마사지 후기⊙나주체코 마사지 토렌트☂나주카메라 마사지┏나주선입금 출장ヘ나주토요 경마

    We know already what the biggest emitters have committed to. The 시흥성감대 마사지 , compared with 1990 levels, by 2030. The jub.xyz , compared with 2005 levels, by 2025. 온라인카지노 .

    Nations responsible for more than 90% of global emissions have now come up with their targets – 동해남성 마사지 . These include all of the major developed and developing countries, though their contributions vary: in the case of developed countries, actual cuts in emissions, but for developing countries a range of targets including limits on emissions compared to “business as usual”, and pledges to increase low-carbon energy or preserve forests.

    Analysis of the INDCS, endorsed by the UN, has suggested that 서울출장안마 . That is not quite enough to meet the scientific advice. However, that is not the end of the story. One of the key components of any Paris agreement would be to institute a system of review of the emissions targets every five years, with a view to ratcheting them upwards.

    Another, and complementary, approach is to make more effort to bring down emissions outside the UN process, for instance by engaging “non-state actors” such as cities, local governments and businesses to do more.

    나주출장안마┴예약☆나주출장최고시〖나주마사지 만화〗☏﹝나주귀두 마사지﹞▩나주마사지 ㅅㅅノ나주안마방 출근부◕나주동대구역 근처 모텔◙나주용원 안마방★나주남포동 안마방

    Not at all – the other key question, apart from emissions reductions, is finance. Poorer countries want the rich world to provide them with financial help that will enable them to invest in clean technology to cut their greenhouse gas emissions, and to adapt their infrastructure to the likely damage from climate change.

    This is a hugely contentious issue. At Copenhagen, where the finance part of the deal was only sorted out at the very last minute, 카지노사이트 , and they said that by 2020, financial flows of at least $100bn a year would be provided.

    As a cornerstone of any Paris agreement, poor countries want assurances that this pledge will be met. That has now been given, in several forms: 대전출장안마 showing that two thirds of the finance required is already being supplied; and 카지노사이트 showed that the remainder can be made up by increased finance from the World Bank and other development banks, and from the private sector. The World Bank and several governments have already committed to upping their financial assistance, meaning that a clear path towards the 2020 target can now be discerned.

    There is more, however. Poor nations also want a similar provision in place beyond 2020, but there is strong disagreement over how this should be done. Some want all the money to come from rich country governments, but those governments are adamant that they will not provide such funding solely from the public purse. They want international development banks, such as the World Bank, to play a role, and they want most of the funding to come from the private sector.

    An agreement on this is still possible, but it will be one of the main obstacles to a Paris deal.

    나주출장안마┗예약✖나주출장최고시〖나주여성전용 안마방〗☚ ﹝나주마사지 질싸﹞☼나주논현동 안마방⇡나주lovegom➳나주검단사거리 안마방ζ나주video fc2 마사지╊나주유재석 안마방

    Yes. The heads of state or government of more than 130 countries have already said they will come. These include Barack Obama of the US, Xi Jinping of China, Narendra Modi of India, Angela Merkel of Germany and David Cameron of the UK. have as yet pulled out as a result of the terrorist attacks on Paris, and security has been stepped up as an assurance. Unlike the Copenhagen talks, however, at which world leaders turned up at the last minute of the two weeks of talks to find their negotiating teams in chaos and without a clear agreement for them to sign, this time the leaders will arrive at the beginning of the conference, give their negotiating teams clear instructions, and expect a fully formed agreement at the end of it.

    On behalf of the French government, the conference will be led by foreign minister Laurent Fabius, and environment minister Segolene Royal, but the French president Francois Hollande will also play a key role. They are all confident that a deal can be made.

    괴산대전 출장
    대전출장샵 평택한국 안마방 진주출장안마
    French president Francois Hollande. Photograph: Philippe Wojazer /Pool/EPA

    나주출장안마♫예약W나주출장최고시〖나주출장안마야한곳〗♀﹝나주인도 마사지﹞✉나주산본 마사지 후기♬나주강동구 안마방‿나주수내 마사지⇜나주해운대 안마방↓나주찌라시 썰

    The key question now is over security. With the French capital under recent attack, and reports of fresh assaults averted by the armed forces, the atmosphere in Paris will be unlike any city that has hosted major international talks before. Security will be paramount - the French police and army will be on the streets, and the venue will be patrolled by uniformed UN guards - but the atrocities of 13 November will hang heavily on all delegates. This may mean that when world leaders attend private meetings, terrorism is discussed before climate change. But it may also mean that delegates are under more pressure than ever to come up with a deal, given the tragic circumstances surrounding them.나주출장안마나주천안 대딸방☰나주태국마사지 가격♡﹝나주안마﹞나주제주도 안마방 추천┘나주태국 에스코트 비용✁나주오피 투샷γ나주휴게텔 안마방⇥카지노사이트출장부르는법나주1인샵 마사지√나주출장아가씨♬‹나주동탄 마사지›나주서울 출장안마↷나주안마방 요도염♂나주안마도➶나주처음 안마방❣나주출장안마군산김해 모텔 추천나주라페스타 안마방✯나주영등포 안마방◎(나주엑소 안마방)나주정자 안마방⇡나주태국 마사지 불법▷나주콜걸샵☣나주경락 마사지◎나주판교 마사지♜나주안마방 존댓말ロ〖나주남친이랑 마사지〗나주출장외국인☼나주국노 토렌트╈나주50m⇟나주신천 안마방┣나주안마방 여자↩나주검단 안마방↔﹝나주av 마사지 추천﹞나주타이 마사지 가격ε나주마사지 앱☽나주언양 마사지╓나주셀룰라이트 마사지◎나주커플 마사지 tumblr↡나주싱가포르 마사지⇩{나주안마방 정액}나주강북 안마방✍나주예약↔나주안마방 썰┎나주일본 마사지 섹스╜출장부르는법성주포이 펫 카지노 롤링24시출장샵나주송원장 마사지◦나주모텔 보도✄{나주모텔 출장}나주남친 마사지⇠나주미아 안마방┷나주안마방 마사지♪나주video fc2 마사지↰나주출장안마나주출장안마온라인카지노나주경찰 안마방나주목동 안마방나주울산 마사지나주화성시 안마방나주출장안마나주하드코어 안마방╠ 나주오피걸❤<나주마사지 흥분>나주신당동 안마방╭나주부산 안마방 추천↯나주구글 안마방╩나주av 마사지ナ금산송파 마사지

    If nations can meet and agree equitable goals on the climate, in these circumstances, it will be a triumph for international cooperation, for our wellbeing and security, and for faith in the future, in the face of forces who wish to destroy all three.

    Topics