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  • 홍성출장맛사지╬예약►홍성이반 마사지「홍성안마방 단골」╨(홍성하동 안마방)┯홍성섹스 마사지↪홍성대학동 마사지░홍성계산동 안마방↔홍성마사지 질싸↚홍성방콕 마사지 비용

    As UN climate negotiations resume in Bonn, we look at why the crunch Paris climate conference from 30 November to 11 December is so important

    카지노사이트
    French foreign minister Laurent Fabius talks to delegates during the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Bonn, Germany. Photograph: Martin Meissner/AP

    홍성출장맛사지┗예약◥홍성이반 마사지「홍성출장 마사지 후기」♫(홍성안마방 수입)♘홍성안마방 여자☏홍성인계동 안마방유홍성안성 마사지♬홍성pj 안마방♂홍성청주 용암동 안마방

    The governments of more than 190 nations 원주안마방 가격 , aimed at reducing global greenhouse gas emissions and thus avoiding the threat of dangerous climate change.

    홍성출장맛사지¤24시출장샵┹홍성이반 마사지「홍성유방 마사지」τ(홍성영화 히든 토렌트)☒홍성압구정 마사지♬홍성여관 비용♐홍성강남 안마방 가격♕홍성섹슈얼 마사지♪ 홍성여성전용 마사지 후기

    Current commitments on greenhouse gas emissions run out in 2020, so at Paris governments are expected to produce an agreement on what happens for the decade after that at least, and potentially beyond.

    Emissions trajectory Photograph: Guardian

    홍성출장맛사지┘예약✗홍성이반 마사지「홍성마사지 공떡」μ(홍성안동 마사지)▦홍성모란 안마방♡홍성방이동 마사지✌홍성호치민 1군 마사지ⓥ홍성태국마사지 불법⇘홍성흉쇄유돌근 마사지

    Scientists have warned that if greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, we will pass the threshold beyond which global warming becomes catastrophic and irreversible. That threshold is estimated as a temperature rise of 2C above pre-industrial levels, and on current emissions trajectories 카지노사이트 . That may not sound like much, but the temperature difference between today’s world and the last ice age was about 5C, so seemingly small changes in temperature can mean big differences for the Earth.

    홍성출장맛사지ユ출장부르는법★홍성이반 마사지「홍성어스파」╢(홍성마사지 야.동)◈홍성마사지 야동┏홍성동작구 안마방▐홍성안마방 청소년❁홍성에이미 avナ홍성서산시 안마방

    They have: global negotiations on climate change have been carrying on for more than 20 years. The history of climate change goes back much further: in the 19th century, physicists theorised about the role of greenhouse gases, chiefly carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere, and several suggested that the warming effect would increase alongside the levels of these gases in the atmosphere. But this was all theoretical.

    Only in the past few decades have scientists begun the measurements necessary to establish a relationship between current carbon levels and temperatures, and the science conducted since then 사천마사지 분수 : that rising greenhouse gas emissions, arising from our use of fossil fuels and our industries, lead to higher temperatures.

    홍성출장맛사지α24시출장샵▧ 홍성이반 마사지「홍성모텔 아가씨」◑(홍성안마방 나무위키)♦홍성상인동 안마방✄홍성kcm 안마방☃홍성아비게일 마사지 토렌트U홍성구의역 마사지✥홍성창원 안마방 후기

    No. Global temperatures have been on a clear upward path. There was a spike in 1998, after which temperatures were lower – 카지노사이트 – that led some climate sceptics to claim that the world was cooling.

    홍성출장맛사지홍성프라하 마사지

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  • But it is important to note that temperatures have not fallen, or stalled – they have continued to rise. Given the variations that characterise our weather systems, a period in which the rate of warming slowed is not unexpected.

    For the past two years, the rate of warming seems to have accelerated again , but little can be construed from that.

    홍성출장맛사지⚘24시출장샵γ홍성이반 마사지「홍성아로마 마사지 후기」☎(홍성안마방 애무)▶홍성사당✃홍성마카오 마사지↕홍성타이 마사지 토렌트╉홍성불법 마사지☂홍성안마방 비비기

    In 1992, governments met in Rio de Janeiro and 광주호치민 호텔 마사지 . That agreement, still in force, bound governments to take action to avoid dangerous climate change, but did not specify what actions. Over the following five years, governments wrangled over what each should do, and what should be the role of developed countries versus poorer nations.

    Those years of argument produced, in 1997, 바카라사이트 . That pact required worldwide cuts in emissions of about 5%, compared with 1990 levels, by 2012, and each developed country was allotted a target on emissions reductions. But developing countries, including China, South Korea, Mexico and other rapidly emerging economies, were given no targets and allowed to increase their emissions at will.

    온라인카지노
    고령강릉 조건녀 바카라사이트 거창경마 예상 지존 대회
    People sign the Earth pledge made at the the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in June 1992. Photograph: UN Photo

    Al Gore, then US vice-president, signed up to the protocol, but it was quickly apparent that it would never be ratified by the US Congress. Legally, the protocol could not come into force until countries representing 55% of global emissions had ratified it. With the US – then the world’s biggest emitter – on the outside, that was not going to happen.

    So for most of the following decade, the Kyoto protocol remained in abeyance and global climate change negotiations ground to a near-halt. But in late 2004, 구미출장안마 – unexpectedly, and as part of a move to have its application for World Trade Organisation membership accepted by the European Union. That made up the weight needed, and the protocol finally came into force.

    홍성출장맛사지♤예약♮홍성이반 마사지「홍성해운대 아가씨」↩(홍성경락 마사지)⇩홍성중국모델 슈가❀홍성동두천 마사지⇪홍성타이 마사지↓홍성원주 안마방♝홍성모텔 아가씨

    Not quite. The US, under George W Bush, remained firmly outside Kyoto, so although the UN negotiations carried on year after year, the US negotiators were often in different rooms from the rest of the world. It was clear a new approach was needed that could bring the US in, and encourage the major developing economies – especially China, now the world’s biggest emitter – to take on limits to their emissions.

    What followed was, 동두천모텔 여자 an action plan that set the world on the course to a new agreement that would take over from Kyoto.

    홍성출장맛사지ツ예약금없는출장샵▶홍성이반 마사지「홍성러시아 안마방」ミ(홍성안마방 물다이 몰카)⇅홍성여관 콜┫홍성렉시벨 마사지☴홍성양재역 마사지☇홍성석계역 안마방♂홍성전립선 마사지 하는 법

    It did take a long time. But getting agreement from 196 countries was never going to be easy. The next act of this long-running drama fully demonstrated that: the 카지노사이트 .

    보령1인 마사지
    진주모텔 젤 온라인카지노.xyz 부여스웨 디시 마사지 란
    US president Barack Obama along with European leaders including German chancellor Angela Merkel, centre, attend negotiations on the final night of the Copenhagen UN Climate Change summit in Denmark on 18 December 2009. Photograph: Pool/Getty Images

    홍성출장맛사지μ예약╣홍성이반 마사지「홍성인덕원 마사지」♀(홍성서울 안마방)╃홍성검단 마사지☻홍성서초 마사지✖홍성하남 마사지─홍성안마방 영어로◄홍성안마방 정액

    Everything but the treaty. All of the world’s developed countries and the biggest developing countries agreed – for the first time – to limits on their greenhouse gas emissions. This was a landmark, as it meant the world’s biggest emitters were united towards a single goal.

    The emissions reductions agreed on were still not enough to meet scientific advice, but they were a big advance on reducing emissions compared with “business as usual”.

    But what didn’t happen turned out to be the point that NGOs and many in the press seized on. 카지노사이트 .

    홍성출장맛사지ヒ예약금없는출장샵●홍성이반 마사지「홍성서귀포 안마방」♐(홍성일본에서 한국녀섭외 마사지)⇊홍성마사지 전단지↕홍성동대구역 여관♡홍성구로 안마방♢홍성러시아 안마방☼홍성논현 안마방

    It depends on your viewpoint. The Kyoto protocol was a beautifully written, watertight, fully legally binding international treaty, a sub-treaty of the similarly binding UNFCCC. But it never met its objectives, because it wasn’t ratified by the US, and not by Russia until it was too late. And 부산출장샵 .

    The Copenhagen agreement, on the other hand, was not fully adopted by the UN in 2009 because of last-minute chaos at the conference, though it was ratified the following year 의정부안마방 나이 . For this reason, the Copenhagen agreement was derided as a failure by green groups.

    홍성출장맛사지►출장부르는법▤홍성이반 마사지「홍성오사카 마사지」☢(홍성안마방 짜파게티)⇛홍성마사지나라↩홍성아가씨 썰↾홍성마사지 ㅅㅅ⇖홍성가슴커지는 마사지♂홍성마사지황형

    But the targets agreed at Copenhagen, in the form of a document signed by world leaders, still stand.

    Representatives of governments from more than 190 nations will try to reach an agreement on carbon emissions at the COP 21 Paris climate talks in December. Photograph: COP21

    홍성출장맛사지⇊예약▬홍성이반 마사지「홍성태국 마사지 서비스」➽(홍성레이크호텔 마사지)☵홍성창원 마사지✗홍성출장 마사지↼홍성마사지 정보↡홍성인덕원 안마방↖홍성남자 안마방

    We know already what the biggest emitters have committed to. The 구미사당 출장 , compared with 1990 levels, by 2030. The 온라인카지노 , compared with 2005 levels, by 2025. 온라인카지노 .

    Nations responsible for more than 90% of global emissions have now come up with their targets – 영월대학동 마사지 . These include all of the major developed and developing countries, though their contributions vary: in the case of developed countries, actual cuts in emissions, but for developing countries a range of targets including limits on emissions compared to “business as usual”, and pledges to increase low-carbon energy or preserve forests.

    Analysis of the INDCS, endorsed by the UN, has suggested that 광주출장안마 . That is not quite enough to meet the scientific advice. However, that is not the end of the story. One of the key components of any Paris agreement would be to institute a system of review of the emissions targets every five years, with a view to ratcheting them upwards.

    Another, and complementary, approach is to make more effort to bring down emissions outside the UN process, for instance by engaging “non-state actors” such as cities, local governments and businesses to do more.

    홍성출장맛사지┠출장부르는법┷홍성이반 마사지「홍성로드샵 단속」⇥(홍성서울 조건 만남)☢홍성신촌 안마방⇇홍성안마┫홍성한국 안마방➳홍성카카오출장☼홍성백석동 마사지

    Not at all – the other key question, apart from emissions reductions, is finance. Poorer countries want the rich world to provide them with financial help that will enable them to invest in clean technology to cut their greenhouse gas emissions, and to adapt their infrastructure to the likely damage from climate change.

    This is a hugely contentious issue. At Copenhagen, where the finance part of the deal was only sorted out at the very last minute, 서울출장샵 , and they said that by 2020, financial flows of at least $100bn a year would be provided.

    As a cornerstone of any Paris agreement, poor countries want assurances that this pledge will be met. That has now been given, in several forms: 수원출장안마 showing that two thirds of the finance required is already being supplied; and 전주출장샵 showed that the remainder can be made up by increased finance from the World Bank and other development banks, and from the private sector. The World Bank and several governments have already committed to upping their financial assistance, meaning that a clear path towards the 2020 target can now be discerned.

    There is more, however. Poor nations also want a similar provision in place beyond 2020, but there is strong disagreement over how this should be done. Some want all the money to come from rich country governments, but those governments are adamant that they will not provide such funding solely from the public purse. They want international development banks, such as the World Bank, to play a role, and they want most of the funding to come from the private sector.

    An agreement on this is still possible, but it will be one of the main obstacles to a Paris deal.

    홍성출장맛사지↸예약U홍성이반 마사지「홍성사상 출장」☚ (홍성연산동 안마방)➸홍성마산 모텔 추천╀홍성두정동 안마방▷홍성안마방 실장◦홍성사타구니 마사지♤홍성출장안마 가격

    Yes. The heads of state or government of more than 130 countries have already said they will come. These include Barack Obama of the US, Xi Jinping of China, Narendra Modi of India, Angela Merkel of Germany and David Cameron of the UK. have as yet pulled out as a result of the terrorist attacks on Paris, and security has been stepped up as an assurance. Unlike the Copenhagen talks, however, at which world leaders turned up at the last minute of the two weeks of talks to find their negotiating teams in chaos and without a clear agreement for them to sign, this time the leaders will arrive at the beginning of the conference, give their negotiating teams clear instructions, and expect a fully formed agreement at the end of it.

    On behalf of the French government, the conference will be led by foreign minister Laurent Fabius, and environment minister Segolene Royal, but the French president Francois Hollande will also play a key role. They are all confident that a deal can be made.

    양평대구 사우나 마사지
    온라인카지노 무안수지 안마방 서울출장샵
    French president Francois Hollande. Photograph: Philippe Wojazer /Pool/EPA

    홍성출장맛사지↔예약➳홍성이반 마사지「홍성안마방 오르가즘」↷(홍성오송 마사지)♫홍성타이 마사지 단속▨홍성창원 출장 숙소┴홍성안마방 항문♫홍성인계동 안마방♭홍성마사지 섹스

    The key question now is over security. With the French capital under recent attack, and reports of fresh assaults averted by the armed forces, the atmosphere in Paris will be unlike any city that has hosted major international talks before. Security will be paramount - the French police and army will be on the streets, and the venue will be patrolled by uniformed UN guards - but the atrocities of 13 November will hang heavily on all delegates. This may mean that when world leaders attend private meetings, terrorism is discussed before climate change. But it may also mean that delegates are under more pressure than ever to come up with a deal, given the tragic circumstances surrounding them.홍성출장맛사지홍성안마방 단발➶홍성콜 걸┯(홍성니시미야 코노미 마사지)홍성지압 나무위키☣홍성마사지 강간➛홍성석계역 안마방⊙홍성안마방 아영이♝원주출장샵예약금없는출장샵홍성경마 시간→홍성마사지 기계❣《홍성포항 타이마사지》홍성부산 마사지☠홍성햄스터 마사지✆홍성상남동 안마방▷홍성마사지 구분⇡홍성출장맛사지대전안성 안마방홍성마사지 앱↟홍성척추 마사지⚘『홍성한국야동 안마방』홍성안마방 얼마냐☜홍성속초 여관╌홍성안마방 초이스 torrent▷홍성대만 안마방×홍성콜걸출장마사지█홍성긴장성 두통 마사지♥﹛홍성안마방 교복﹜홍성여성 전용 아로마 마사지★홍성아주동 마사지⇛홍성모텔 전화♂홍성라페스타 안마방⇪홍성마사지 사정◎홍성안마방 썰↹『홍성안마방 ㅅㅅ』홍성턱관절 마사지↺홍성안마방 하드❄홍성타이 마사지 토렌트エ홍성필승 안마방♘홍성포항 마사지 후기→홍성아산 안마방┴{홍성안마방 창업}홍성이태원 마사지♧홍성예약금 없는 출장 샵➵홍성강릉 여관↹홍성비키니 마사지☂출장부르는법함평토렌트 안마방예약금없는출장샵홍성안마방 텀블러↿홍성군자역 안마방☢(홍성마사지 할인)홍성고추 마사지⇩홍성출장만족보장┹홍성fc2 남친 마사지♕홍성오사카 안마방➚홍성출장맛사지홍성출장맛사지카지노사이트홍성서울 출장샵홍성오피 마사지홍성오산 타이 마사지홍성인계동 안마방홍성출장맛사지홍성영주 마사지╓홍성라페 안마방♨‹홍성림프선 마사지›홍성부산 안마방 후기⇖홍성창동 마사지╙홍성마사지 수면실π홍성마사지 샤워기⇛과천출장아가씨

    If nations can meet and agree equitable goals on the climate, in these circumstances, it will be a triumph for international cooperation, for our wellbeing and security, and for faith in the future, in the face of forces who wish to destroy all three.

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