원주출장샵⇃24시출장샵♥원주동해 마사지〔원주발마사지〕┦(원주싱가포르 마사지)◎원주안마방 예약⇔원주av 마사지♢원주선입금 없는 출장 만남▒원주동작구 안마방☈원주양재역 안마방

As UN climate negotiations resume in Bonn, we look at why the crunch Paris climate conference from 30 November to 11 December is so important

전주출장안마
French foreign minister Laurent Fabius talks to delegates during the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Bonn, Germany. Photograph: Martin Meissner/AP

원주출장샵┦예약금없는출장샵✃원주동해 마사지〔원주판상근 마사지〕☏(원주단양 안마방)➽원주안마방 썰⇜원주오피스 걸◎원주아가씨 썰➹원주러시아 밤문화☀원주세부 안마방

The governments of more than 190 nations 남양주방콕 마사지 가격 , aimed at reducing global greenhouse gas emissions and thus avoiding the threat of dangerous climate change.

원주출장샵┹예약금없는출장샵φ원주동해 마사지〔원주호구포 마사지〕┫(원주강남 안마방 위치)0원주구미 모텔❂원주안마방 아영이⊙원주폼롤러 마사지⇗원주마사지 어플ル원주세r시 마사지

Current commitments on greenhouse gas emissions run out in 2020, so at Paris governments are expected to produce an agreement on what happens for the decade after that at least, and potentially beyond.

Emissions trajectory Photograph: Guardian

원주출장샵⇩24시출장샵☊원주동해 마사지〔원주푸켓 크리스틴 러브 마사지〕⇂(원주요괴 마사지)ク원주조치원 마사지◎원주출장마사지☠원주김무열 마사지➥원주강남 전립선 마사지┬원주모텔 젤

Scientists have warned that if greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, we will pass the threshold beyond which global warming becomes catastrophic and irreversible. That threshold is estimated as a temperature rise of 2C above pre-industrial levels, and on current emissions trajectories 천안출장샵 . That may not sound like much, but the temperature difference between today’s world and the last ice age was about 5C, so seemingly small changes in temperature can mean big differences for the Earth.

원주출장샵↾출장부르는법╔원주동해 마사지〔원주마사지 단속〕ス(원주로미 로미 마사지 란)⇪원주릉콜걸샵◤원주광명사거리 안마방➷원주서혜부 마사지➴원주인천 안마방 후기♨원주출장오피

They have: global negotiations on climate change have been carrying on for more than 20 years. The history of climate change goes back much further: in the 19th century, physicists theorised about the role of greenhouse gases, chiefly carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere, and several suggested that the warming effect would increase alongside the levels of these gases in the atmosphere. But this was all theoretical.

Only in the past few decades have scientists begun the measurements necessary to establish a relationship between current carbon levels and temperatures, and the science conducted since then 부천젖몸살 마사지 : that rising greenhouse gas emissions, arising from our use of fossil fuels and our industries, lead to higher temperatures.

원주출장샵♢예약↕원주동해 마사지〔원주양산 마사지〕☣(원주안마방 몰카 torrent)╛원주신림동 여관✉원주렉시벨 마사지⇄원주부산 모텔 아가씨↼원주태국마사지 가격✒원주출장마사지

No. Global temperatures have been on a clear upward path. There was a spike in 1998, after which temperatures were lower – 부산출장샵 – that led some climate sceptics to claim that the world was cooling.

원주출장샵원주피로회복 마사지

  • 충청북도외국인출장만남
  • 원주링검 마사지
  • 원주출장샵
  • But it is important to note that temperatures have not fallen, or stalled – they have continued to rise. Given the variations that characterise our weather systems, a period in which the rate of warming slowed is not unexpected.

    For the past two years, the rate of warming seems to have accelerated again , but little can be construed from that.

    원주출장샵▪예약금없는출장샵◀원주동해 마사지〔원주의정부 모텔 추천〕╪(원주화성 안마방)♡원주부산역 마사지◎원주대전 모텔 가격§원주마사지 핸플┡원주유성 안마방 후기♠원주중앙동 안마방

    In 1992, governments met in Rio de Janeiro and 담양족저근막염 마사지 . That agreement, still in force, bound governments to take action to avoid dangerous climate change, but did not specify what actions. Over the following five years, governments wrangled over what each should do, and what should be the role of developed countries versus poorer nations.

    Those years of argument produced, in 1997, 창원출장샵 . That pact required worldwide cuts in emissions of about 5%, compared with 1990 levels, by 2012, and each developed country was allotted a target on emissions reductions. But developing countries, including China, South Korea, Mexico and other rapidly emerging economies, were given no targets and allowed to increase their emissions at will.

    대전출장안마
    충주쿤타이 마사지 대구출장안마 보은마사지 움짤
    People sign the Earth pledge made at the the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in June 1992. Photograph: UN Photo

    Al Gore, then US vice-president, signed up to the protocol, but it was quickly apparent that it would never be ratified by the US Congress. Legally, the protocol could not come into force until countries representing 55% of global emissions had ratified it. With the US – then the world’s biggest emitter – on the outside, that was not going to happen.

    So for most of the following decade, the Kyoto protocol remained in abeyance and global climate change negotiations ground to a near-halt. But in late 2004, gvya.xyz – unexpectedly, and as part of a move to have its application for World Trade Organisation membership accepted by the European Union. That made up the weight needed, and the protocol finally came into force.

    원주출장샵→예약☚ 원주동해 마사지〔원주안마방 fc2〕⇩(원주비염 마사지)♪원주송우리 안마방☚ 원주대구 마사지⇪원주용산구 안마방〓원주목동역 마사지√원주안마방 오픈시간

    Not quite. The US, under George W Bush, remained firmly outside Kyoto, so although the UN negotiations carried on year after year, the US negotiators were often in different rooms from the rest of the world. It was clear a new approach was needed that could bring the US in, and encourage the major developing economies – especially China, now the world’s biggest emitter – to take on limits to their emissions.

    What followed was, 속초사이판 마사지 an action plan that set the world on the course to a new agreement that would take over from Kyoto.

    원주출장샵┳24시출장샵☃원주동해 마사지〔원주마사지 텀블러〕┊(원주교대 안마방)κ원주gigi rivera 마사지⇆원주fc2 한국 마사지☪원주송파 마사지ホ원주평택역 안마방イ원주지저분한 색스 나고야 여성 전용 마사지

    It did take a long time. But getting agreement from 196 countries was never going to be easy. The next act of this long-running drama fully demonstrated that: the 온라인카지노 .

    성남강남 안마방 후기
    고령강서 안마방 대전출장샵 청양현풍 마사지
    US president Barack Obama along with European leaders including German chancellor Angela Merkel, centre, attend negotiations on the final night of the Copenhagen UN Climate Change summit in Denmark on 18 December 2009. Photograph: Pool/Getty Images

    원주출장샵❃예약£원주동해 마사지〔원주여인숙 가격〕♦(원주북창동 후기)➥원주뒷목 마사지▷원주방이동 여관┣원주마사지 초대남﹌원주귀두 마사지◑원주타이마사지 불법

    Everything but the treaty. All of the world’s developed countries and the biggest developing countries agreed – for the first time – to limits on their greenhouse gas emissions. This was a landmark, as it meant the world’s biggest emitters were united towards a single goal.

    The emissions reductions agreed on were still not enough to meet scientific advice, but they were a big advance on reducing emissions compared with “business as usual”.

    But what didn’t happen turned out to be the point that NGOs and many in the press seized on. 온라인카지노 .

    원주출장샵➴예약♩원주동해 마사지〔원주안마방 수면〕┾(원주창원 안마방)☢원주용산 안마방☀원주허리 마사지➸원주압구정 마사지♗원주일본 오일 마사지╓원주안마방 도찰

    It depends on your viewpoint. The Kyoto protocol was a beautifully written, watertight, fully legally binding international treaty, a sub-treaty of the similarly binding UNFCCC. But it never met its objectives, because it wasn’t ratified by the US, and not by Russia until it was too late. And 울산출장샵 .

    The Copenhagen agreement, on the other hand, was not fully adopted by the UN in 2009 because of last-minute chaos at the conference, though it was ratified the following year 영암야몽 마사지 . For this reason, the Copenhagen agreement was derided as a failure by green groups.

    원주출장샵┦24시출장샵╚원주동해 마사지〔원주목포 여관〕▧(원주야탑 마사지 후기)»원주미금역 안마방♫원주상암동 안마방‿원주안산 조건 만남☏원주주갤 안마방♝원주두피 마사지

    But the targets agreed at Copenhagen, in the form of a document signed by world leaders, still stand.

    Representatives of governments from more than 190 nations will try to reach an agreement on carbon emissions at the COP 21 Paris climate talks in December. Photograph: COP21

    원주출장샵⇪출장부르는법✕원주동해 마사지〔원주연동 안마방〕♡(원주마사지)┪원주나고야 여성전용 마사지⊕원주안와상융기 마사지♖원주세부 안마방➛원주sod 마사지➹원주철산 안마방

    We know already what the biggest emitters have committed to. The 부평마사지 하드 , compared with 1990 levels, by 2030. The 진주출장샵 , compared with 2005 levels, by 2025. 서울출장안마 .

    Nations responsible for more than 90% of global emissions have now come up with their targets – 삼척광교 마사지 . These include all of the major developed and developing countries, though their contributions vary: in the case of developed countries, actual cuts in emissions, but for developing countries a range of targets including limits on emissions compared to “business as usual”, and pledges to increase low-carbon energy or preserve forests.

    Analysis of the INDCS, endorsed by the UN, has suggested that 카지노사이트 . That is not quite enough to meet the scientific advice. However, that is not the end of the story. One of the key components of any Paris agreement would be to institute a system of review of the emissions targets every five years, with a view to ratcheting them upwards.

    Another, and complementary, approach is to make more effort to bring down emissions outside the UN process, for instance by engaging “non-state actors” such as cities, local governments and businesses to do more.

    원주출장샵✉예약금없는출장샵⇀원주동해 마사지〔원주안마방 스탭〕웃(원주천호 안마방)⇆원주파주 마사지┻원주목포 마사지ト원주av 에이미↪원주정왕동 마사지✉원주림프 마사지 금기 사항

    Not at all – the other key question, apart from emissions reductions, is finance. Poorer countries want the rich world to provide them with financial help that will enable them to invest in clean technology to cut their greenhouse gas emissions, and to adapt their infrastructure to the likely damage from climate change.

    This is a hugely contentious issue. At Copenhagen, where the finance part of the deal was only sorted out at the very last minute, 온라인카지노.xyz , and they said that by 2020, financial flows of at least $100bn a year would be provided.

    As a cornerstone of any Paris agreement, poor countries want assurances that this pledge will be met. That has now been given, in several forms: 대구출장샵 showing that two thirds of the finance required is already being supplied; and 광주출장안마 showed that the remainder can be made up by increased finance from the World Bank and other development banks, and from the private sector. The World Bank and several governments have already committed to upping their financial assistance, meaning that a clear path towards the 2020 target can now be discerned.

    There is more, however. Poor nations also want a similar provision in place beyond 2020, but there is strong disagreement over how this should be done. Some want all the money to come from rich country governments, but those governments are adamant that they will not provide such funding solely from the public purse. They want international development banks, such as the World Bank, to play a role, and they want most of the funding to come from the private sector.

    An agreement on this is still possible, but it will be one of the main obstacles to a Paris deal.

    원주출장샵▦24시출장샵┑원주동해 마사지〔원주출장서비스〕↩(원주원주 마사지)▪원주지압 나무위키▼원주베트남 안마방↶원주전주 마사지 추천╩원주안마방 얼마╟원주인계동 마사지

    Yes. The heads of state or government of more than 130 countries have already said they will come. These include Barack Obama of the US, Xi Jinping of China, Narendra Modi of India, Angela Merkel of Germany and David Cameron of the UK. have as yet pulled out as a result of the terrorist attacks on Paris, and security has been stepped up as an assurance. Unlike the Copenhagen talks, however, at which world leaders turned up at the last minute of the two weeks of talks to find their negotiating teams in chaos and without a clear agreement for them to sign, this time the leaders will arrive at the beginning of the conference, give their negotiating teams clear instructions, and expect a fully formed agreement at the end of it.

    On behalf of the French government, the conference will be led by foreign minister Laurent Fabius, and environment minister Segolene Royal, but the French president Francois Hollande will also play a key role. They are all confident that a deal can be made.

    부천단발 안마방
    서울출장안마 구미베트남 마사지 후기 울산출장안마
    French president Francois Hollande. Photograph: Philippe Wojazer /Pool/EPA

    원주출장샵▒예약금없는출장샵◦원주동해 마사지〔원주부평 안마방〕⇗(원주상무지구 마사지)╟원주보령 안마방●원주신사역 안마방✿원주안마방 아줌마☺원주답십리 마사지╜원주모텔 다방

    The key question now is over security. With the French capital under recent attack, and reports of fresh assaults averted by the armed forces, the atmosphere in Paris will be unlike any city that has hosted major international talks before. Security will be paramount - the French police and army will be on the streets, and the venue will be patrolled by uniformed UN guards - but the atrocities of 13 November will hang heavily on all delegates. This may mean that when world leaders attend private meetings, terrorism is discussed before climate change. But it may also mean that delegates are under more pressure than ever to come up with a deal, given the tragic circumstances surrounding them.원주출장샵원주안마방 출장┗원주오리역 안마방✑(원주안마방 가는법)원주사각턱 마사지✖원주마사지 관리사△원주안마방 오랄β원주금천구 안마방♔군산출장안마24시출장샵원주태평역 안마방✿원주대구 마사지 추천▧﹝원주김천 마사지﹞원주출장샵추천➻원주다낭 마사지 가격☪원주괌 마사지 팔러↟원주출장샵추천↑원주출장샵장성부부 마사지원주전기 마사지╩원주콧대 마사지 효과►(원주사당 마사지)원주구리 마사지♮원주서면 마사지ⓥ원주상남동 안마방チ원주출장안마야한곳☚ 원주강동구 안마방☇원주순천 안마방♨【원주겨드랑이 마사지】원주귀두 마사지☌원주구글 안마방✍원주선릉 안마방↨원주평촌 안마방↶원주발 마사지▨원주섹슈얼 마사지❄{원주전립선 마사지 썰}원주타이마사지 불법▷원주대전 모텔 추천♕원주안마방 영상❄원주안마방 쓰리섬⇪원주일본 마사지 노모♡원주다낭 밤문화 마사지α「원주나고야 여성 전용 마사지」원주출장샵예약포항♧원주하드코어 안마방λ원주시화 안마방◐원주안마방 풀코스➧예약마산전립선 마사지 영상예약원주안마방 모닝콜♞원주안양 안마방➴﹝원주허리 마사지﹞원주갓비비 마사지↿원주마사지 효능┉원주양재역 마사지◑원주프라하 마사지┛원주출장샵원주출장샵천안출장안마원주마사지 av원주클리토리스 마사지원주답십리 안마방원주포항 타이마사지원주출장샵원주상무지구 마사지¤원주탑 클래스↥﹝원주편두통 마사지﹞원주안마방 애무╬원주부산 해운대 안마방♬원주아산 안마방♟원주태국 안마방∷거제서울 출장 후기

    If nations can meet and agree equitable goals on the climate, in these circumstances, it will be a triumph for international cooperation, for our wellbeing and security, and for faith in the future, in the face of forces who wish to destroy all three.

    Topics