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  • 영월출장샵モ출장부르는법►영월게이 마사지『영월강서구청 안마방』β‹영월유방 마사지›♠영월홍성 안마방♀ 영월다리 마사지┙영월동암역 마사지☪영월속초 안마방✖영월콜걸후기

    As UN climate negotiations resume in Bonn, we look at why the crunch Paris climate conference from 30 November to 11 December is so important

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    French foreign minister Laurent Fabius talks to delegates during the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Bonn, Germany. Photograph: Martin Meissner/AP

    영월출장샵ス출장부르는법♜영월게이 마사지『영월tumblr 안마방』☄‹영월안마방 에이즈›⇀영월김해 마사지◤영월24시 마사지⇣영월위례 마사지⇞영월타이 마사지 서비스✿영월자카르타 마사지

    The governments of more than 190 nations 부산옆광대 마사지 , aimed at reducing global greenhouse gas emissions and thus avoiding the threat of dangerous climate change.

    영월출장샵★예약금없는출장샵❈영월게이 마사지『영월안마방 지루』♝‹영월포항 북구 안마방›⊙영월모텔 아가씨♕영월간석동 안마방♪영월부산 해운대 출장➹영월목포 모텔 추천↤영월마사지 야설

    Current commitments on greenhouse gas emissions run out in 2020, so at Paris governments are expected to produce an agreement on what happens for the decade after that at least, and potentially beyond.

    Emissions trajectory Photograph: Guardian

    영월출장샵█예약금없는출장샵⇚영월게이 마사지『영월오피 안마방』✈‹영월아비게일 마사지›▶영월아프리카tv 마사지↽영월태국 마사지 마무리✗영월공주 안마방ソ영월퇴폐↞영월신데렐라 안마방

    Scientists have warned that if greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, we will pass the threshold beyond which global warming becomes catastrophic and irreversible. That threshold is estimated as a temperature rise of 2C above pre-industrial levels, and on current emissions trajectories 대전출장샵 . That may not sound like much, but the temperature difference between today’s world and the last ice age was about 5C, so seemingly small changes in temperature can mean big differences for the Earth.

    영월출장샵╃출장부르는법ν영월게이 마사지『영월경마 시간』ワ‹영월육덕 마사지›╡영월김포 타이 마사지♦영월출장가격↜영월방콕 마사지 가격♧영월합정 안마방U영월스즈하라 에미리 마사지

    They have: global negotiations on climate change have been carrying on for more than 20 years. The history of climate change goes back much further: in the 19th century, physicists theorised about the role of greenhouse gases, chiefly carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere, and several suggested that the warming effect would increase alongside the levels of these gases in the atmosphere. But this was all theoretical.

    Only in the past few decades have scientists begun the measurements necessary to establish a relationship between current carbon levels and temperatures, and the science conducted since then 대구후쿠오카 마사지 : that rising greenhouse gas emissions, arising from our use of fossil fuels and our industries, lead to higher temperatures.

    영월출장샵ω24시출장샵☀영월게이 마사지『영월경락 마사지』⇎‹영월동두천 안마방›┮영월광주 여관ヌ영월창원 출장 마사지⇃영월fc2 한국 마사지✿영월운서동 안마방▨영월부산 모텔 촌

    No. Global temperatures have been on a clear upward path. There was a spike in 1998, after which temperatures were lower – 전주출장안마 – that led some climate sceptics to claim that the world was cooling.

    영월출장샵영월몰카 안마방

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  • But it is important to note that temperatures have not fallen, or stalled – they have continued to rise. Given the variations that characterise our weather systems, a period in which the rate of warming slowed is not unexpected.

    For the past two years, the rate of warming seems to have accelerated again , but little can be construed from that.

    영월출장샵♢출장부르는법▶영월게이 마사지『영월항문 마사지』✪‹영월창원 안마방›サ영월새로운 안마방 아가씨 토렌트ハ영월하당 마사지◦영월안마방 tumblr❦영월안마방 ㅇㄷ╝영월체코 마사지 fc2

    In 1992, governments met in Rio de Janeiro and 고창안동 마사지 . That agreement, still in force, bound governments to take action to avoid dangerous climate change, but did not specify what actions. Over the following five years, governments wrangled over what each should do, and what should be the role of developed countries versus poorer nations.

    Those years of argument produced, in 1997, 구미출장안마 . That pact required worldwide cuts in emissions of about 5%, compared with 1990 levels, by 2012, and each developed country was allotted a target on emissions reductions. But developing countries, including China, South Korea, Mexico and other rapidly emerging economies, were given no targets and allowed to increase their emissions at will.

    대전출장샵
    파주양평 안마방 온라인카지노 경상북도대구 출장 마사지
    People sign the Earth pledge made at the the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in June 1992. Photograph: UN Photo

    Al Gore, then US vice-president, signed up to the protocol, but it was quickly apparent that it would never be ratified by the US Congress. Legally, the protocol could not come into force until countries representing 55% of global emissions had ratified it. With the US – then the world’s biggest emitter – on the outside, that was not going to happen.

    So for most of the following decade, the Kyoto protocol remained in abeyance and global climate change negotiations ground to a near-halt. But in late 2004, 온라인카지노 – unexpectedly, and as part of a move to have its application for World Trade Organisation membership accepted by the European Union. That made up the weight needed, and the protocol finally came into force.

    영월출장샵↳24시출장샵┏영월게이 마사지『영월광주 안마방』↪‹영월서울대 안마방›➳영월안마방 알바 단속⇀영월남성전용✲영월경기 광주 마사지╔영월성대 마사지☀영월안와상융기 마사지

    Not quite. The US, under George W Bush, remained firmly outside Kyoto, so although the UN negotiations carried on year after year, the US negotiators were often in different rooms from the rest of the world. It was clear a new approach was needed that could bring the US in, and encourage the major developing economies – especially China, now the world’s biggest emitter – to take on limits to their emissions.

    What followed was, 산청오송 마사지 an action plan that set the world on the course to a new agreement that would take over from Kyoto.

    영월출장샵⇛출장부르는법┭영월게이 마사지『영월길동 안마방』☇‹영월군산 마사지›☀영월다낭 vip 마사지╗영월마사지 구분♂영월광주 안마방┒영월안마방 가는 법➠영월을지로 안마방

    It did take a long time. But getting agreement from 196 countries was never going to be easy. The next act of this long-running drama fully demonstrated that: the 구미출장안마 .

    고창야동 실제
    구미마사지 fc2 울산출장샵 영덕아스카 키라라 마사지
    US president Barack Obama along with European leaders including German chancellor Angela Merkel, centre, attend negotiations on the final night of the Copenhagen UN Climate Change summit in Denmark on 18 December 2009. Photograph: Pool/Getty Images

    영월출장샵⇜예약╚영월게이 마사지『영월수유 마사지』❀‹영월오산 마사지›▫영월안마방 전립선⇛영월동탄 마사지 후기↪영월안마방 콘돔⚘영월안마방 스타킹▷영월척추 마사지

    Everything but the treaty. All of the world’s developed countries and the biggest developing countries agreed – for the first time – to limits on their greenhouse gas emissions. This was a landmark, as it meant the world’s biggest emitters were united towards a single goal.

    The emissions reductions agreed on were still not enough to meet scientific advice, but they were a big advance on reducing emissions compared with “business as usual”.

    But what didn’t happen turned out to be the point that NGOs and many in the press seized on. 수원출장샵 .

    영월출장샵↕출장부르는법イ영월게이 마사지『영월마산 마사지』☺‹영월안마방 영상›➻영월포항 타이 마사지◦영월안산 마사지θ영월안산 조건 만남➨영월음부 마사지ノ영월구로 마사지

    It depends on your viewpoint. The Kyoto protocol was a beautifully written, watertight, fully legally binding international treaty, a sub-treaty of the similarly binding UNFCCC. But it never met its objectives, because it wasn’t ratified by the US, and not by Russia until it was too late. And 군산출장샵 .

    The Copenhagen agreement, on the other hand, was not fully adopted by the UN in 2009 because of last-minute chaos at the conference, though it was ratified the following year 정읍안마방 영상 . For this reason, the Copenhagen agreement was derided as a failure by green groups.

    영월출장샵★24시출장샵┟영월게이 마사지『영월수유리 안마방』╈‹영월수내역 마사지›┒영월모텔 출장♈영월서울 안마방 추천♩영월경마 예상 지존 대회┱영월언양 마사지➵영월남성전용

    But the targets agreed at Copenhagen, in the form of a document signed by world leaders, still stand.

    Representatives of governments from more than 190 nations will try to reach an agreement on carbon emissions at the COP 21 Paris climate talks in December. Photograph: COP21

    영월출장샵✕예약➦영월게이 마사지『영월ace anma』┗‹영월여성전용 마사지›☇영월서현역 마사지❃영월안마방 무한샷ミ영월청도 마사지╨영월서울역 마사지╕영월호치민 호텔 마사지

    We know already what the biggest emitters have committed to. The 서울부산 안마방 가격 , compared with 1990 levels, by 2030. The 카지노사이트 , compared with 2005 levels, by 2025. 창원출장안마 .

    Nations responsible for more than 90% of global emissions have now come up with their targets – 김포상남동 안마방 . These include all of the major developed and developing countries, though their contributions vary: in the case of developed countries, actual cuts in emissions, but for developing countries a range of targets including limits on emissions compared to “business as usual”, and pledges to increase low-carbon energy or preserve forests.

    Analysis of the INDCS, endorsed by the UN, has suggested that 군산출장샵 . That is not quite enough to meet the scientific advice. However, that is not the end of the story. One of the key components of any Paris agreement would be to institute a system of review of the emissions targets every five years, with a view to ratcheting them upwards.

    Another, and complementary, approach is to make more effort to bring down emissions outside the UN process, for instance by engaging “non-state actors” such as cities, local governments and businesses to do more.

    영월출장샵☀24시출장샵♞영월게이 마사지『영월안마방 모닝콜』☢‹영월시각장애인 마사지›☐영월실제 안마방╓영월장유 마사지×영월춘천 안마방╪영월전주 터미널 모텔☼영월수내역 마사지

    Not at all – the other key question, apart from emissions reductions, is finance. Poorer countries want the rich world to provide them with financial help that will enable them to invest in clean technology to cut their greenhouse gas emissions, and to adapt their infrastructure to the likely damage from climate change.

    This is a hugely contentious issue. At Copenhagen, where the finance part of the deal was only sorted out at the very last minute, 서울출장안마 , and they said that by 2020, financial flows of at least $100bn a year would be provided.

    As a cornerstone of any Paris agreement, poor countries want assurances that this pledge will be met. That has now been given, in several forms: smatoos.xyz showing that two thirds of the finance required is already being supplied; and 카지노사이트 showed that the remainder can be made up by increased finance from the World Bank and other development banks, and from the private sector. The World Bank and several governments have already committed to upping their financial assistance, meaning that a clear path towards the 2020 target can now be discerned.

    There is more, however. Poor nations also want a similar provision in place beyond 2020, but there is strong disagreement over how this should be done. Some want all the money to come from rich country governments, but those governments are adamant that they will not provide such funding solely from the public purse. They want international development banks, such as the World Bank, to play a role, and they want most of the funding to come from the private sector.

    An agreement on this is still possible, but it will be one of the main obstacles to a Paris deal.

    영월출장샵↘출장부르는법↕영월게이 마사지『영월익산 모텔 추천』✚‹영월폰섹 녹음›┑영월일베 모텔⇞영월인계동 안마방♖영월출장샵추천➻영월아쿠아 마사지 젤↺영월김해 마사지

    Yes. The heads of state or government of more than 130 countries have already said they will come. These include Barack Obama of the US, Xi Jinping of China, Narendra Modi of India, Angela Merkel of Germany and David Cameron of the UK. have as yet pulled out as a result of the terrorist attacks on Paris, and security has been stepped up as an assurance. Unlike the Copenhagen talks, however, at which world leaders turned up at the last minute of the two weeks of talks to find their negotiating teams in chaos and without a clear agreement for them to sign, this time the leaders will arrive at the beginning of the conference, give their negotiating teams clear instructions, and expect a fully formed agreement at the end of it.

    On behalf of the French government, the conference will be led by foreign minister Laurent Fabius, and environment minister Segolene Royal, but the French president Francois Hollande will also play a key role. They are all confident that a deal can be made.

    횡성안마방 미러
    서울출장안마 대전속초 모텔 가격 울산출장안마
    French president Francois Hollande. Photograph: Philippe Wojazer /Pool/EPA

    영월출장샵✗24시출장샵┛영월게이 마사지『영월안마방 입싸』┓‹영월칠곡3지구 마사지›↙영월죽전 안마방♤영월마사지 의자“영월누들누 드♧영월출장연애인급⇖영월주안 안마방

    The key question now is over security. With the French capital under recent attack, and reports of fresh assaults averted by the armed forces, the atmosphere in Paris will be unlike any city that has hosted major international talks before. Security will be paramount - the French police and army will be on the streets, and the venue will be patrolled by uniformed UN guards - but the atrocities of 13 November will hang heavily on all delegates. This may mean that when world leaders attend private meetings, terrorism is discussed before climate change. But it may also mean that delegates are under more pressure than ever to come up with a deal, given the tragic circumstances surrounding them.영월출장샵영월안마방 경찰♩영월조건 출장❥‹영월안마방 사정›영월동암 마사지➼영월태국마사지 불법┢영월성남 마사지♨영월장안동 마사지┞대구출장샵예약금없는출장샵영월프라하 마사지▌영월링검 마사지π《영월여인숙 가격》영월전북 안마방√영월야탑 마사지 후기.영월천안 립╔영월마사지 의자ウ영월출장샵공주건강 마사지영월출장코스가격╎영월경성대 마사지╝〔영월성장판 마사지〕영월포항 타이 마사지♟영월안마방 비비기❈영월안마방 용어✓영월고관절 마사지╆영월콜걸추천╏영월창녕 마사지▬《영월다낭 호텔 마사지》영월코타키나발루 마사지유영월일본 마사지 av☀영월논현 안마방☁영월오일 마사지 야동♫영월칭다오 마사지ヘ영월대전 마사지 추천♣﹝영월출장오피﹞영월양재역 마사지§영월필고♞영월해피 오렌지 출장 샵シ영월월곶 마사지メ영월답십리 안마방ア영월안마ヨ{영월수유 안마방}영월마사지 어플π영월안마방 싸면 끝♟영월정관 마사지◆영월강남 안마방▥예약원주진주 오피예약영월세븐 상추 안마방➶영월안마방 왕가슴녀↓﹛영월태국 현지 마사지﹜영월강남 안마방┈영월시화 안마방┘영월안마방 몰래×영월gigi rivera 마사지✙영월출장샵영월출장샵군산출장샵영월마사지 중독영월군산 모텔 추천영월출장오쓰피걸영월청라 마사지영월출장샵영월허벅지 마사지☯영월여성 전용 마사지 알바♭「영월안마방 모닝콜」영월다낭 마사지 추천╚영월동암역 마사지↰영월청소년 안마방┢영월마사지 핸플ア목포일본마사지

    If nations can meet and agree equitable goals on the climate, in these circumstances, it will be a triumph for international cooperation, for our wellbeing and security, and for faith in the future, in the face of forces who wish to destroy all three.

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