예약금없는출장샵
  • 사천미아 안마방
  • 군산출장안마
  • 바카라사이트
  • 영월영대 안마방
  • 사천콜걸❤예약➼사천안마방 알바 벌금﹝사천아다 안마방﹞ケ[사천소프 마사지]♐사천구로 마사지☼사천용산구 안마방↺사천송탄 마사지▽사천y존 마사지♠사천경산 사우나 마사지

    As UN climate negotiations resume in Bonn, we look at why the crunch Paris climate conference from 30 November to 11 December is so important

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    French foreign minister Laurent Fabius talks to delegates during the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Bonn, Germany. Photograph: Martin Meissner/AP

    사천콜걸╙출장부르는법☢사천안마방 알바 벌금﹝사천다낭 마사지﹞↖[사천유성 마사지]γ사천김포 타이 마사지☆사천머리 마사지▫사천안마방 가격◀사천안마방 질싸↔사천마사지 tumblr

    The governments of more than 190 nations 대전의정부 대딸방 , aimed at reducing global greenhouse gas emissions and thus avoiding the threat of dangerous climate change.

    사천콜걸█24시출장샵⇙사천안마방 알바 벌금﹝사천천안 조건 만남﹞ζ[사천지저분한 섹스 나고야 여성 마사지]┯사천안마방 아줌마↯사천타이 마사지┄사천의정부 모텔 추천✎사천카카오출장▩사천포항 아가씨

    Current commitments on greenhouse gas emissions run out in 2020, so at Paris governments are expected to produce an agreement on what happens for the decade after that at least, and potentially beyond.

    Emissions trajectory Photograph: Guardian

    사천콜걸┚24시출장샵⇛사천안마방 알바 벌금﹝사천범일동 마사지﹞»[사천마사지 영어]╄사천강원랜드 근처 마사지ヌ사천타이마사지➻사천석계역 안마방ク사천태백 마사지☐사천국 안마방 초이스

    Scientists have warned that if greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, we will pass the threshold beyond which global warming becomes catastrophic and irreversible. That threshold is estimated as a temperature rise of 2C above pre-industrial levels, and on current emissions trajectories 천안출장샵 . That may not sound like much, but the temperature difference between today’s world and the last ice age was about 5C, so seemingly small changes in temperature can mean big differences for the Earth.

    사천콜걸┯예약금없는출장샵➴사천안마방 알바 벌금﹝사천요괴 마사지﹞↠[사천구리 마사지]➺사천안마방 어플▷사천안마방 몰카 tumblr↶사천원룸 출장♀사천전북 안마방┇사천서귀포 안마방

    They have: global negotiations on climate change have been carrying on for more than 20 years. The history of climate change goes back much further: in the 19th century, physicists theorised about the role of greenhouse gases, chiefly carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere, and several suggested that the warming effect would increase alongside the levels of these gases in the atmosphere. But this was all theoretical.

    Only in the past few decades have scientists begun the measurements necessary to establish a relationship between current carbon levels and temperatures, and the science conducted since then 영주크라운제이 안마방 : that rising greenhouse gas emissions, arising from our use of fossil fuels and our industries, lead to higher temperatures.

    사천콜걸▷예약▩사천안마방 알바 벌금﹝사천아중리 안마방﹞┉[사천정왕 안마방]▀사천성대 마사지↺사천가산디지털단지역 안마방▷사천출장코스가격⊙사천마사지 분수☂사천카톡

    No. Global temperatures have been on a clear upward path. There was a spike in 1998, after which temperatures were lower – 서울출장샵 – that led some climate sceptics to claim that the world was cooling.

    사천콜걸사천제주도 마사지

  • 횡성여성전용 마사지 구인
  • 사천구리 안마방
  • 사천콜걸
  • But it is important to note that temperatures have not fallen, or stalled – they have continued to rise. Given the variations that characterise our weather systems, a period in which the rate of warming slowed is not unexpected.

    For the past two years, the rate of warming seems to have accelerated again , but little can be construed from that.

    사천콜걸○출장부르는법⇃사천안마방 알바 벌금﹝사천안마방 알바 벌금﹞❁[사천손목 마사지]↩사천안마방 몰카 torrent❂사천연산 안마방⊥사천인천 마사지♛사천태국 아로마 마사지↶사천op

    In 1992, governments met in Rio de Janeiro and 상주마사지 남친 . That agreement, still in force, bound governments to take action to avoid dangerous climate change, but did not specify what actions. Over the following five years, governments wrangled over what each should do, and what should be the role of developed countries versus poorer nations.

    Those years of argument produced, in 1997, wgma.xyz . That pact required worldwide cuts in emissions of about 5%, compared with 1990 levels, by 2012, and each developed country was allotted a target on emissions reductions. But developing countries, including China, South Korea, Mexico and other rapidly emerging economies, were given no targets and allowed to increase their emissions at will.

    수원출장샵
    진해포항 아가씨 원주출장샵 인천멜라니
    People sign the Earth pledge made at the the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in June 1992. Photograph: UN Photo

    Al Gore, then US vice-president, signed up to the protocol, but it was quickly apparent that it would never be ratified by the US Congress. Legally, the protocol could not come into force until countries representing 55% of global emissions had ratified it. With the US – then the world’s biggest emitter – on the outside, that was not going to happen.

    So for most of the following decade, the Kyoto protocol remained in abeyance and global climate change negotiations ground to a near-halt. But in late 2004, 창원출장안마 – unexpectedly, and as part of a move to have its application for World Trade Organisation membership accepted by the European Union. That made up the weight needed, and the protocol finally came into force.

    사천콜걸⇛출장부르는법►사천안마방 알바 벌금﹝사천마사지 검색﹞⇤[사천천안역 근처 모텔]➷사천대만 마사지◀사천푸켓 크리스틴 러브 마사지↾사천러시아 마사지✐사천송파구 안마방♥사천천안 립

    Not quite. The US, under George W Bush, remained firmly outside Kyoto, so although the UN negotiations carried on year after year, the US negotiators were often in different rooms from the rest of the world. It was clear a new approach was needed that could bring the US in, and encourage the major developing economies – especially China, now the world’s biggest emitter – to take on limits to their emissions.

    What followed was, 성주강남 안마방 서비스 an action plan that set the world on the course to a new agreement that would take over from Kyoto.

    사천콜걸↼출장부르는법ⓔ사천안마방 알바 벌금﹝사천조루 안마방﹞♠[사천석계 안마방]⇩사천구미 여관❥사천태국 아로마 마사지→사천출장샵콜걸♮사천호텔 걸♂사천발산역 안마방

    It did take a long time. But getting agreement from 196 countries was never going to be easy. The next act of this long-running drama fully demonstrated that: the 진주출장안마 .

    영동안마방 발기
    남양주계양구 안마방 진주출장안마 의령태국마사지 불법
    US president Barack Obama along with European leaders including German chancellor Angela Merkel, centre, attend negotiations on the final night of the Copenhagen UN Climate Change summit in Denmark on 18 December 2009. Photograph: Pool/Getty Images

    사천콜걸╈예약금없는출장샵♙사천안마방 알바 벌금﹝사천정관 마사지﹞◦[사천조건]○사천찌라시 썰➻사천경주 동천동 마사지♖사천진해 마사지╉사천tumblr 안마방♤사천가슴 마사지

    Everything but the treaty. All of the world’s developed countries and the biggest developing countries agreed – for the first time – to limits on their greenhouse gas emissions. This was a landmark, as it meant the world’s biggest emitters were united towards a single goal.

    The emissions reductions agreed on were still not enough to meet scientific advice, but they were a big advance on reducing emissions compared with “business as usual”.

    But what didn’t happen turned out to be the point that NGOs and many in the press seized on. 광주출장샵 .

    사천콜걸§예약卐사천안마방 알바 벌금﹝사천스타 안마방﹞▐[사천마사지 움짤]⇚사천부산대 안마방➸사천안마방 전화번호 저장✲사천영일대 마사지┴사천세븐 안마방╓사천동인천 마사지

    It depends on your viewpoint. The Kyoto protocol was a beautifully written, watertight, fully legally binding international treaty, a sub-treaty of the similarly binding UNFCCC. But it never met its objectives, because it wasn’t ratified by the US, and not by Russia until it was too late. And 대구출장안마 .

    The Copenhagen agreement, on the other hand, was not fully adopted by the UN in 2009 because of last-minute chaos at the conference, though it was ratified the following year 전주출장 타이마사지 . For this reason, the Copenhagen agreement was derided as a failure by green groups.

    사천콜걸⇠예약금없는출장샵◐사천안마방 알바 벌금﹝사천안마방 엉덩이﹞♪ [사천부천 대딸방]╥사천안마방 에이즈┪사천안마방 빨리싸면U사천동출장마사지α사천구미 여관♙사천게이 마사지

    But the targets agreed at Copenhagen, in the form of a document signed by world leaders, still stand.

    Representatives of governments from more than 190 nations will try to reach an agreement on carbon emissions at the COP 21 Paris climate talks in December. Photograph: COP21

    사천콜걸↤예약금없는출장샵♙사천안마방 알바 벌금﹝사천안마방 찾는법﹞┼[사천안마방 얼굴]⊙사천video.fc2.com 마사지◑사천출장①사천구미 모텔☆사천아가씨 출장┋사천삼산동 출장

    We know already what the biggest emitters have committed to. The 보성안구 마사지 , compared with 1990 levels, by 2030. The 대전출장샵 , compared with 2005 levels, by 2025. 대전출장샵 .

    Nations responsible for more than 90% of global emissions have now come up with their targets – 부천출장만남 . These include all of the major developed and developing countries, though their contributions vary: in the case of developed countries, actual cuts in emissions, but for developing countries a range of targets including limits on emissions compared to “business as usual”, and pledges to increase low-carbon energy or preserve forests.

    Analysis of the INDCS, endorsed by the UN, has suggested that 진주출장샵 . That is not quite enough to meet the scientific advice. However, that is not the end of the story. One of the key components of any Paris agreement would be to institute a system of review of the emissions targets every five years, with a view to ratcheting them upwards.

    Another, and complementary, approach is to make more effort to bring down emissions outside the UN process, for instance by engaging “non-state actors” such as cities, local governments and businesses to do more.

    사천콜걸☻예약금없는출장샵╓사천안마방 알바 벌금﹝사천나고야 여성전용 마사지﹞▧[사천구미 마사지]↠사천마사지 강간✿사천상남동 마사지♪사천가경동 안마방►사천마사지 사진╎사천아프리카 마사지

    Not at all – the other key question, apart from emissions reductions, is finance. Poorer countries want the rich world to provide them with financial help that will enable them to invest in clean technology to cut their greenhouse gas emissions, and to adapt their infrastructure to the likely damage from climate change.

    This is a hugely contentious issue. At Copenhagen, where the finance part of the deal was only sorted out at the very last minute, 카지노사이트 , and they said that by 2020, financial flows of at least $100bn a year would be provided.

    As a cornerstone of any Paris agreement, poor countries want assurances that this pledge will be met. That has now been given, in several forms: 구미출장안마 showing that two thirds of the finance required is already being supplied; and 대구출장샵 showed that the remainder can be made up by increased finance from the World Bank and other development banks, and from the private sector. The World Bank and several governments have already committed to upping their financial assistance, meaning that a clear path towards the 2020 target can now be discerned.

    There is more, however. Poor nations also want a similar provision in place beyond 2020, but there is strong disagreement over how this should be done. Some want all the money to come from rich country governments, but those governments are adamant that they will not provide such funding solely from the public purse. They want international development banks, such as the World Bank, to play a role, and they want most of the funding to come from the private sector.

    An agreement on this is still possible, but it will be one of the main obstacles to a Paris deal.

    사천콜걸☺출장부르는법▬사천안마방 알바 벌금﹝사천수원 마사지﹞┥[사천양구 안마방]⇗사천안마방 대물♚사천출장샵강추◑사천어방동 마사지╇사천마사지 썰♡사천하노이 vip 마사지

    Yes. The heads of state or government of more than 130 countries have already said they will come. These include Barack Obama of the US, Xi Jinping of China, Narendra Modi of India, Angela Merkel of Germany and David Cameron of the UK. have as yet pulled out as a result of the terrorist attacks on Paris, and security has been stepped up as an assurance. Unlike the Copenhagen talks, however, at which world leaders turned up at the last minute of the two weeks of talks to find their negotiating teams in chaos and without a clear agreement for them to sign, this time the leaders will arrive at the beginning of the conference, give their negotiating teams clear instructions, and expect a fully formed agreement at the end of it.

    On behalf of the French government, the conference will be led by foreign minister Laurent Fabius, and environment minister Segolene Royal, but the French president Francois Hollande will also play a key role. They are all confident that a deal can be made.

    수원콜걸업소
    창원출장안마 파주안마방 보빨 온라인카지노
    French president Francois Hollande. Photograph: Philippe Wojazer /Pool/EPA

    사천콜걸↺예약금없는출장샵▣사천안마방 알바 벌금﹝사천출장안마 가격﹞❈[사천마산 모텔 추천]◙사천안와상융기 마사지ネ사천노원 안마방┴사천안마방 리뷰☇사천호텔식 마사지◐사천일산 타이 마사지

    The key question now is over security. With the French capital under recent attack, and reports of fresh assaults averted by the armed forces, the atmosphere in Paris will be unlike any city that has hosted major international talks before. Security will be paramount - the French police and army will be on the streets, and the venue will be patrolled by uniformed UN guards - but the atrocities of 13 November will hang heavily on all delegates. This may mean that when world leaders attend private meetings, terrorism is discussed before climate change. But it may also mean that delegates are under more pressure than ever to come up with a deal, given the tragic circumstances surrounding them.사천콜걸사천연예인 안마방✁사천포천 안마방░[사천콜녀]사천안마방 위키☚ 사천강릉 마사지➼사천국산 안마방➹사천시흥동 안마방◥광주출장안마24시출장샵사천출장샵후기┶사천경주 안마방☜[사천상하이 마사지]사천마사지 수면실☺사천마사지 강간┍사천전주 안마방 가격♟사천서초 마사지➚사천콜걸함안안마방 애널사천수암 마사지╮사천남친 안마방π【사천복부 마사지】사천타이페이 마사지┑사천ace anma✉사천마사지 일본╔사천로드샵 단속┊사천성균관대역 마사지▣사천콜걸 후기♥『사천신천 모텔』사천제주 안마방╗사천안마방 나무║사천대구 마사지┹사천서울출장안마◄사천심천 마사지↕사천안성 안마방﹃(사천안마방 입싸)사천자카르타 마사지‿사천중국모델 슈가♨사천대딸 마사지♛사천엄지 눈 근육 마사지⇩사천태국 여행 마사지⇞사천마사지 레전드↥﹛사천셀프 마사지﹜사천상주 안마방☛사천안마방 몰카 tumblr┛사천이수역 마사지◑사천눈 마사지☱24시출장샵안산이수역 마사지24시출장샵사천제주 안마방┠사천평택 마사지═「사천일본 마사지 품번」사천마사지 영어로❤사천조건 만남 카페↢사천천안 카페☀사천여고생 마사지♦사천콜걸사천콜걸군산출장샵사천용암동 모텔사천딥티슈 마사지사천무릎 마사지사천안마방 알바 썰사천콜걸사천엄태웅 안마방█사천가산 안마방⚘(사천전완근 마사지)사천광양 마사지♈사천tumblr 안마방╅사천부산 하단 출장✿사천아줌마 마사지‿합천필고

    If nations can meet and agree equitable goals on the climate, in these circumstances, it will be a triumph for international cooperation, for our wellbeing and security, and for faith in the future, in the face of forces who wish to destroy all three.

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