밀양출장샵➛24시출장샵☼밀양역삼 안마방{밀양임파선 마사지}►「밀양창원 안마방 후기」┴밀양남자 전립선 마사지★밀양다낭 에덴 마사지シ밀양역삼 마사지┏밀양일본식 안마방➹밀양동래 마사지

As UN climate negotiations resume in Bonn, we look at why the crunch Paris climate conference from 30 November to 11 December is so important

광주출장안마
French foreign minister Laurent Fabius talks to delegates during the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Bonn, Germany. Photograph: Martin Meissner/AP

밀양출장샵☂24시출장샵♚밀양역삼 안마방{밀양포항 마사지 후기}▶「밀양일본마사지」♘밀양타이 마사지 단속┯밀양부산역 모텔 가격⇩밀양일본 마사지 몰카╇밀양대천 안마방☼밀양일산 안마방

The governments of more than 190 nations 평택미아 안마방 , aimed at reducing global greenhouse gas emissions and thus avoiding the threat of dangerous climate change.

밀양출장샵セ예약♐밀양역삼 안마방{밀양대산 마사지}╄「밀양코 높아지는 마사지」✍밀양퇴폐 마사지♀밀양시각장애인 마사지↶밀양선릉역 안마방.밀양타이마사지 팁 서비스♥밀양국산_신작_안마방

Current commitments on greenhouse gas emissions run out in 2020, so at Paris governments are expected to produce an agreement on what happens for the decade after that at least, and potentially beyond.

Emissions trajectory Photograph: Guardian

밀양출장샵♪ 예약┢밀양역삼 안마방{밀양제주시 연동 마사지}0「밀양출장대행」♡밀양서울대입구 마사지✄밀양여성전용 마사지☑밀양포항 터미널 모텔β밀양강릉 타이 마사지↺밀양후불제 출장샵

Scientists have warned that if greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, we will pass the threshold beyond which global warming becomes catastrophic and irreversible. That threshold is estimated as a temperature rise of 2C above pre-industrial levels, and on current emissions trajectories 포항출장안마 . That may not sound like much, but the temperature difference between today’s world and the last ice age was about 5C, so seemingly small changes in temperature can mean big differences for the Earth.

밀양출장샵▒예약☌밀양역삼 안마방{밀양라페스타 안마방}⇃「밀양부천역 안마방」┑밀양겨드랑이 마사지↓밀양노원 마사지↪밀양대구 콜0밀양셀프 마사지U밀양일본 안마방 야동

They have: global negotiations on climate change have been carrying on for more than 20 years. The history of climate change goes back much further: in the 19th century, physicists theorised about the role of greenhouse gases, chiefly carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere, and several suggested that the warming effect would increase alongside the levels of these gases in the atmosphere. But this was all theoretical.

Only in the past few decades have scientists begun the measurements necessary to establish a relationship between current carbon levels and temperatures, and the science conducted since then 오산상추 안마방 : that rising greenhouse gas emissions, arising from our use of fossil fuels and our industries, lead to higher temperatures.

밀양출장샵♪출장부르는법↹밀양역삼 안마방{밀양허벅지 마사지}⇂「밀양수유 안마방」♣밀양안면 비대칭 마사지☎밀양텀블러 마사지♦밀양안마방 감염✈밀양의정부 마사지☆밀양안마방 아다

No. Global temperatures have been on a clear upward path. There was a spike in 1998, after which temperatures were lower – 대전출장샵 – that led some climate sceptics to claim that the world was cooling.

밀양출장샵밀양정액 마사지

  • 보은일본 마사지 토렌트
  • 밀양마사지 효과
  • 밀양출장샵
  • But it is important to note that temperatures have not fallen, or stalled – they have continued to rise. Given the variations that characterise our weather systems, a period in which the rate of warming slowed is not unexpected.

    For the past two years, the rate of warming seems to have accelerated again , but little can be construed from that.

    밀양출장샵╗예약금없는출장샵╔밀양역삼 안마방{밀양마사지 노모}╦「밀양종로 마사지」↴밀양안마방 초이스.mp4➺밀양출장안마야한곳↺밀양천안 카페○밀양안마방 항문❤밀양죽전 안마방

    In 1992, governments met in Rio de Janeiro and 경상남도역삼 마사지 . That agreement, still in force, bound governments to take action to avoid dangerous climate change, but did not specify what actions. Over the following five years, governments wrangled over what each should do, and what should be the role of developed countries versus poorer nations.

    Those years of argument produced, in 1997, webdesigners.xyz . That pact required worldwide cuts in emissions of about 5%, compared with 1990 levels, by 2012, and each developed country was allotted a target on emissions reductions. But developing countries, including China, South Korea, Mexico and other rapidly emerging economies, were given no targets and allowed to increase their emissions at will.

    카지노사이트
    진안심장 마사지 카지노사이트 홍천인덕원 마사지
    People sign the Earth pledge made at the the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in June 1992. Photograph: UN Photo

    Al Gore, then US vice-president, signed up to the protocol, but it was quickly apparent that it would never be ratified by the US Congress. Legally, the protocol could not come into force until countries representing 55% of global emissions had ratified it. With the US – then the world’s biggest emitter – on the outside, that was not going to happen.

    So for most of the following decade, the Kyoto protocol remained in abeyance and global climate change negotiations ground to a near-halt. But in late 2004, 광주출장샵 – unexpectedly, and as part of a move to have its application for World Trade Organisation membership accepted by the European Union. That made up the weight needed, and the protocol finally came into force.

    밀양출장샵ⓔ24시출장샵⇁밀양역삼 안마방{밀양북창동 후기}☻「밀양대전 여관」➼밀양마사지 몰 카☁밀양온양 마사지β밀양문정동 마사지ナ밀양판교 마사지❥밀양여대생 마사지

    Not quite. The US, under George W Bush, remained firmly outside Kyoto, so although the UN negotiations carried on year after year, the US negotiators were often in different rooms from the rest of the world. It was clear a new approach was needed that could bring the US in, and encourage the major developing economies – especially China, now the world’s biggest emitter – to take on limits to their emissions.

    What followed was, 진주출장안마야한곳 an action plan that set the world on the course to a new agreement that would take over from Kyoto.

    밀양출장샵サ예약금없는출장샵•밀양역삼 안마방{밀양김포 안마방}┴「밀양포천 안마방」☃밀양천안 출장 만남╇밀양박중현 안마방▫밀양화정 안마방☠밀양국산 안마방☁밀양필리핀 안마방

    It did take a long time. But getting agreement from 196 countries was never going to be easy. The next act of this long-running drama fully demonstrated that: the 군산출장안마 .

    용인서양 마사지 fc2
    태백천안 카페 목포출장안마 전주태국 마사지 종류
    US president Barack Obama along with European leaders including German chancellor Angela Merkel, centre, attend negotiations on the final night of the Copenhagen UN Climate Change summit in Denmark on 18 December 2009. Photograph: Pool/Getty Images

    밀양출장샵ニ출장부르는법➺밀양역삼 안마방{밀양안마방 레베카}ω「밀양안마방 아다」☞밀양아산 출장 만남✖밀양텀블러 여관♬밀양안마방 태국ⓛ밀양안마방 모닝콜⇣밀양춘천 태국 마사지

    Everything but the treaty. All of the world’s developed countries and the biggest developing countries agreed – for the first time – to limits on their greenhouse gas emissions. This was a landmark, as it meant the world’s biggest emitters were united towards a single goal.

    The emissions reductions agreed on were still not enough to meet scientific advice, but they were a big advance on reducing emissions compared with “business as usual”.

    But what didn’t happen turned out to be the point that NGOs and many in the press seized on. 구미출장안마 .

    밀양출장샵θ예약χ밀양역삼 안마방{밀양실제 안마방}❉「밀양구미 아로마 마사지」◑밀양마사지 카운터 알바★밀양마사지 대딸☁밀양안마방 avi☈밀양이종찬 마사지♯밀양안마방 미시

    It depends on your viewpoint. The Kyoto protocol was a beautifully written, watertight, fully legally binding international treaty, a sub-treaty of the similarly binding UNFCCC. But it never met its objectives, because it wasn’t ratified by the US, and not by Russia until it was too late. And gvya.xyz .

    The Copenhagen agreement, on the other hand, was not fully adopted by the UN in 2009 because of last-minute chaos at the conference, though it was ratified the following year 장수강서 마사지 . For this reason, the Copenhagen agreement was derided as a failure by green groups.

    밀양출장샵■24시출장샵↢밀양역삼 안마방{밀양스포츠 마사지}❦「밀양유두 마사지」╦밀양상남동 마사지♂밀양인천 서구 마사지☒밀양진주 마사지☏밀양장안동 마사지⇃밀양출장마사지

    But the targets agreed at Copenhagen, in the form of a document signed by world leaders, still stand.

    Representatives of governments from more than 190 nations will try to reach an agreement on carbon emissions at the COP 21 Paris climate talks in December. Photograph: COP21

    밀양출장샵┯24시출장샵┫밀양역삼 안마방{밀양안마방 전립선}ミ「밀양수안보 안마방」┟밀양마사지 썰╜밀양강동구 안마방▨밀양유성 마사지△밀양연신내 안마방╣밀양남성전용 마사지

    We know already what the biggest emitters have committed to. The 창원타이 마사지 팁 , compared with 1990 levels, by 2030. The 진주출장샵 , compared with 2005 levels, by 2025. 바카라사이트 .

    Nations responsible for more than 90% of global emissions have now come up with their targets – 서귀포공유 마사지 . These include all of the major developed and developing countries, though their contributions vary: in the case of developed countries, actual cuts in emissions, but for developing countries a range of targets including limits on emissions compared to “business as usual”, and pledges to increase low-carbon energy or preserve forests.

    Analysis of the INDCS, endorsed by the UN, has suggested that 부산출장안마 . That is not quite enough to meet the scientific advice. However, that is not the end of the story. One of the key components of any Paris agreement would be to institute a system of review of the emissions targets every five years, with a view to ratcheting them upwards.

    Another, and complementary, approach is to make more effort to bring down emissions outside the UN process, for instance by engaging “non-state actors” such as cities, local governments and businesses to do more.

    밀양출장샵↔출장부르는법☊밀양역삼 안마방{밀양신림동 여관}0「밀양안마방 동영상」┾밀양와이프 마사지♚밀양서귀포 마사지▷밀양의정부 안마방 추천♦밀양고현 안마방▐밀양안마방 가는법

    Not at all – the other key question, apart from emissions reductions, is finance. Poorer countries want the rich world to provide them with financial help that will enable them to invest in clean technology to cut their greenhouse gas emissions, and to adapt their infrastructure to the likely damage from climate change.

    This is a hugely contentious issue. At Copenhagen, where the finance part of the deal was only sorted out at the very last minute, 구미출장안마 , and they said that by 2020, financial flows of at least $100bn a year would be provided.

    As a cornerstone of any Paris agreement, poor countries want assurances that this pledge will be met. That has now been given, in several forms: 진주출장안마 showing that two thirds of the finance required is already being supplied; and 포항출장샵 showed that the remainder can be made up by increased finance from the World Bank and other development banks, and from the private sector. The World Bank and several governments have already committed to upping their financial assistance, meaning that a clear path towards the 2020 target can now be discerned.

    There is more, however. Poor nations also want a similar provision in place beyond 2020, but there is strong disagreement over how this should be done. Some want all the money to come from rich country governments, but those governments are adamant that they will not provide such funding solely from the public purse. They want international development banks, such as the World Bank, to play a role, and they want most of the funding to come from the private sector.

    An agreement on this is still possible, but it will be one of the main obstacles to a Paris deal.

    밀양출장샵♢예약금없는출장샵↼밀양역삼 안마방{밀양안마방 물다이}┆「밀양경마 시간」♂밀양용현동 마사지╘밀양안마방 똥까시↺밀양오피스텔 마사지→밀양모텔 걸➷밀양평택역 마사지

    Yes. The heads of state or government of more than 130 countries have already said they will come. These include Barack Obama of the US, Xi Jinping of China, Narendra Modi of India, Angela Merkel of Germany and David Cameron of the UK. have as yet pulled out as a result of the terrorist attacks on Paris, and security has been stepped up as an assurance. Unlike the Copenhagen talks, however, at which world leaders turned up at the last minute of the two weeks of talks to find their negotiating teams in chaos and without a clear agreement for them to sign, this time the leaders will arrive at the beginning of the conference, give their negotiating teams clear instructions, and expect a fully formed agreement at the end of it.

    On behalf of the French government, the conference will be led by foreign minister Laurent Fabius, and environment minister Segolene Royal, but the French president Francois Hollande will also play a key role. They are all confident that a deal can be made.

    원주출장마사지
    온라인카지노 서울 스포츠 마사지 군산출장샵
    French president Francois Hollande. Photograph: Philippe Wojazer /Pool/EPA

    밀양출장샵✕24시출장샵♣밀양역삼 안마방{밀양신림동 여관}❧「밀양안마방 나무」⇂밀양서울 출장§밀양계룡시 안마방↕밀양부산 서면 출장♔밀양해피 오렌지 출장 샵ナ밀양태국 에스코트 비용

    The key question now is over security. With the French capital under recent attack, and reports of fresh assaults averted by the armed forces, the atmosphere in Paris will be unlike any city that has hosted major international talks before. Security will be paramount - the French police and army will be on the streets, and the venue will be patrolled by uniformed UN guards - but the atrocities of 13 November will hang heavily on all delegates. This may mean that when world leaders attend private meetings, terrorism is discussed before climate change. But it may also mean that delegates are under more pressure than ever to come up with a deal, given the tragic circumstances surrounding them.밀양출장샵밀양부천 대딸방◄밀양강북 안마방✐「밀양출장만족보장」밀양서양 마사지⇢밀양신천 모텔┌밀양안마방 정보║밀양호치민 호텔 마사지╚전주출장샵24시출장샵밀양인천 안마방♪ 밀양필리핀 마사지┎《밀양안마방 cctv》밀양일본 성인 마사지⇟밀양최음제 마사지☏밀양서혜부 마사지 란❤밀양태국 마사지 썰◘밀양출장샵고양인계동 안마방 후기밀양동대문 마사지♩밀양오사카 마사지フ《밀양마사지 구분》밀양마사지 흥분ェ밀양계산동 안마방♞밀양안마방 질싸↽밀양강서구청 안마방⇃밀양안마방 검색κ밀양안마방 지루ヒ‹밀양마사지 fc2›밀양안마방 움짤╂밀양안마방 나이대♧밀양검단 안마방⇚밀양시화 안마방➚밀양대전복합터미널 마사지♩밀양대전 마사지 추천ξ〖밀양제목없음 안마방〗밀양영통 안마방↡밀양안마방 방구▧밀양타이 마사지 꿀팁╬ 밀양안마방 구분ニ밀양눈 마사지◎밀양노모 마사지♚[밀양수원역 안마방]밀양아로마 마사지 부작용⇪밀양예약금 없는 출장 샵▬밀양태릉입구역 안마방☼밀양시흥동 안마방★예약진주천호동 안마방예약금없는출장샵밀양유성 마사지✎밀양출장가격↮﹝밀양아가씨 출장﹞밀양순천 안마방☌밀양양평 마사지♜밀양나고야 여성전용 마사지┗밀양v라인 마사지┱밀양출장샵밀양출장샵wonderlend.xyz밀양누루 마사지밀양안마방 전립선밀양순천 타이 마사지밀양종아리 근육 마사지밀양출장샵밀양건대 마사지⇪밀양여관 다방ラ[밀양대화역 마사지]밀양한국 마사지 야동ウ밀양안마방 영업시간↕밀양이태원 안마방セ밀양범계 안마방ノ문경서면 안마방

    If nations can meet and agree equitable goals on the climate, in these circumstances, it will be a triumph for international cooperation, for our wellbeing and security, and for faith in the future, in the face of forces who wish to destroy all three.

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